Sabtu, 13 Juli 2013

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Interspecies transplant works in first step for new diabetes therapy

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 08:46 AM PDT

In the first step toward animal-to-human transplants of insulin-producing cells for people with type 1 diabetes, scientists have successfully transplanted islets, the cells that produce insulin, from one species to another. And the islets survived without immunosuppressive drugs. Scientists developed a new method that prevented rejection of the islets, a huge problem in transplants between species, called xenotransplantation.

Link between quantum physics and game theory found

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 08:46 AM PDT

A deep link between two seemingly unconnected areas of modern science has been discovered.

On the trail of bacteria: Infrared light allows characterization of pathogens

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 08:46 AM PDT

Scientists are hot on the trail of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The researchers have developed a technique for the rapid and reliable distinction between strains that can cause chronic infections and those that cannot. Using infrared light and artificial intelligence, the scientists present a sophisticated method for the prediction of disease progression.

Drug delivery: Small packages delivering huge results

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 08:46 AM PDT

Researchers have developed an efficient system to coat tiny objects, such as bacterial cells, with thin films that assemble themselves which could have important implications for drug delivery as well as biomedical and environmental applications.

Brain region implicated in emotional disturbance in dementia patients

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 08:45 AM PDT

A new study has demonstrated that patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lose the emotional content/color of their memories. These findings explain why FTD patients may not vividly remember an emotionally charged event like a wedding or funeral.

Where do muscles get their power? Fifty-year-old assumptions about strength muscled aside

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 07:28 AM PDT

New understanding of where muscles get their power from turns 50 years of strength belief on its head. New insight could aid everything from bodybuilding to cardiac care.

Understanding the motivations of mass shooters is key to successful law enforcement strategies

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 07:25 AM PDT

A detailed statistical study of mass shootings in the USA suggests that training law enforcement officers to recognize the psychology and behavioral patterns of perpetrators could improve officers' ability to deal with an on-site shootout or suicide.

Marital status reduces risk of death from HIV/AIDS for men

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 07:24 AM PDT

At the height of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s men who were married were significantly less likely to die of HIV/AIDS than their single counterparts. For women, marital status had little impact on who was more likely to die of the disease. But race proved to be a significant risk factor.

Promise of 'human computing power' via crowdsourcing to speed medical research

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 07:24 AM PDT

Utilizing crowdsourcing in medical research can improve the quality, cost, and speed of a research project while engaging large segments of the public and creating novel science.

Induced seismicity? Recent spike of earthquakes in the central and eastern U.S. may be linked to human activity

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 06:52 AM PDT

The number of earthquakes has increased dramatically over the past few years within the central and eastern United States. More than 300 earthquakes above a magnitude 3.0 occurred in the three years from 2010-2012, compared with an average rate of 21 events per year observed from 1967-2000. This increase in earthquakes prompts two important questions: Are they natural, or human-made? And what should be done in the future as we address the causes and consequences of these events to reduce associated risks? U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been analyzing the changes in the rate of earthquakes as well as the likely causes, and they have some answers.

Grazing slugs hinder grassland restoration

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:46 AM PDT

Research shows slugs may be hampering efforts to restore ecologically important grasslands.

Gang members found to suffer unprecedented levels of psychiatric illness

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:46 AM PDT

Young men who are gang members suffer unprecedented levels of psychiatric illness, placing a heavy burden on mental health services, according to new research.

Air pollution responsible for more than 2 million deaths worldwide each year, experts estimate

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:44 AM PDT

More than two million deaths occur globally each year as a direct result of human-caused outdoor air pollution, a new study has found. In addition, while it has been suggested that a changing climate can exacerbate the effects of air pollution and increase death rates, the study shows that this has a minimal effect and only accounts for a small proportion of current deaths related to air pollution.

Novel bicycle saddle prevents chafing, pain and other damage associated with the genital area

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:44 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a novel bicycle saddle that prevents chafing, pain and other damage associated with the genital area as impotence and prostatitis.  

Individual atoms imaged in a living catalytic reaction

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:43 AM PDT

Groundbreaking new electron microscopy technology is allowing researchers to observe and analyze single atoms, small clusters and nanoparticles in dynamic in-situ experiments for the first time.

A coral symbiont genome decoded for first time

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:43 AM PDT

Scientists have decoded the genome of the algae Symbiodinium minutum. This is a major advance in understanding the complex ecology of coral reefs.

Daydreaming simulated by computer model

Posted: 12 Jul 2013 05:42 AM PDT

Scientists have created a virtual model of the brain that daydreams like humans do. They hope the model will help them understand why certain portions of the brain work together when a person is mentally idle.
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Jumat, 12 Juli 2013

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Caribbean's native predators unable to stop aggressive lionfish population growth

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 02:25 PM PDT

"Ocean predator" conjures up images of sharks and barracudas, but the voracious red lionfish is out-eating them all in the Caribbean -- and Mother Nature appears unable to control its impact on local reef fish. That leaves human intervention as the most promising solution to the problem of this highly invasive species, said researchers.

Lionfish expedition: Down deep is where the big, scary ones live

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 02:25 PM PDT

The first expedition to use a deep-diving submersible to study the Atlantic Ocean lionfish invasion found something very disturbing -- at 300 feet deep, there were still significant populations of these predatory fish, and they were big. Big fish can reproduce much more efficiently than their younger, smaller counterparts, and lionfish can travel. This raises significant new concerns in the effort to control this invasive species that is devastating native fish populations on the Atlantic Coast and in the Caribbean Sea.

'Taste sensor' genes in female butterflies vital to species' survival

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 02:25 PM PDT

Giving the phrase "Mother knows best" a whole new meaning, researchers have identified unique genes in female butterflies that enable them to select the best host plant for their larvae -- and avoid deadly ones.

Insect discovery sheds light on climate change

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 12:41 PM PDT

Biologists have discovered a new, extinct family of insects that will help scientists better understand how some animals responded to global climate change and the evolution of communities.

NASA's OPALS to beam data from space via laser

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 12:14 PM PDT

NASA will use the International Space Station to test a new communications technology that could dramatically improve spacecraft communications, enhance commercial missions and strengthen transmission of scientific data.

Scientists cast doubt on theory of what triggered Antarctic glaciation

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 11:24 AM PDT

Scientists have found geologic evidence that casts doubt on one of the conventional explanations for how Antarctica's ice sheet began forming. They report finding an ancient volcanic arc in the Scotia Sea that might have prevented the Antarctic Circumpolar Current from forming until millions of years after Antarctic glaciation began.

Gene therapy using lentivirus to treat Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome promising

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 11:24 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new gene therapy approach to treatment of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, a fatal inherited form of immunodeficiency.

Distant earthquakes trigger tremors at U.S. waste-injection sites, says study

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 11:24 AM PDT

Large earthquakes from distant parts of the globe are setting off tremors around waste-fluid injection wells in the central United States, says a new study. Furthermore, such triggering of minor quakes by distant events could be precursors to larger events at sites where pressure from waste injection has pushed faults close to failure, say researchers. Among the sites covered are central Oklahoma, western Texas and southern Colorado.

Nerves play key role in triggering prostate cancer and influencing its spread

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 11:23 AM PDT

Researchers have found that nerves play a critical role in both the development and spread of prostate tumors. Their findings, using both a mouse model and human prostate tissue, may lead to new ways to predict the aggressiveness of prostate cancer and to novel therapies for preventing and treating the disease.

Geothermal power facility induces earthquakes, study finds

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 11:23 AM PDT

An analysis of earthquakes in the area around the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in southern California has found a strong correlation between seismic activity and operations for production of geothermal power, which involve pumping water into and out of an underground reservoir.

The brain processes complex stimuli more cumulatively than we thought

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 11:23 AM PDT

A new study reveals that the representation of complex features in the brain may begin in a hierarchically lower brain region than previously thought.

Buying behavior can be swayed by cultural mindset

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:57 AM PDT

People with collectivist mindsets tend to value the relationships between items more than the particular items themselves. Those with individualistic mindsets seem to do just the opposite.

Cry analyzer seeks clues to babies' health

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:56 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new tool that analyzes the cries of babies, searching for clues to potential health or developmental problems. Slight variations in cries, mostly imperceptible to the human ear, can be a "window into the brain" that could allow for early intervention.

Writing computer programs using ordinary language: Systems convert ordinary language to code

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:56 AM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated that, for a few specific tasks, it's possible to write computer programs using ordinary language rather than special-purpose programming languages. The work may be of some help to programmers, and it could let nonprogrammers manipulate common types of files -- like word-processing documents and spreadsheets -- in ways that previously required familiarity with programming languages.

Snakes devour more mosquito-eating birds as climate change heats forests

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:55 AM PDT

Rising temperatures threaten wild birds, including the Missouri-native Acadian flycatcher, by making snakes more active, according to biologists. They noted that farmers, public health officials and wildlife managers should be aware of complex indirect effects of climate change in addition to the more obvious influences of higher temperatures and irregular weather patterns.

Why do we enjoy listening to sad music?

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:54 AM PDT

Sad music might actually evoke positive emotions, reveals a new study by Japanese researchers.

Ground-breaking new method of 'starving' cancer cells

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:54 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a novel way of killing cancer cells. The scientists found a new potential treatment for cancer, which leaves the body's healthy cells undamaged, unlike traditional therapies such as radiotherapy.

Obese dads pass on predisposition to obesity and metabolic disorders to their kids

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:54 AM PDT

If you are obese and hope to be a father, here's another reason to lose weight: your children and grandchildren may inherit your waistline or metabolic disorders. Scientists have discovered in mice that obese fathers, even those with no symptoms of diabetes, passed this negative trait on most frequently to their daughters. Sons don't dodge this genetic bullet either -- both sons and daughters of obese fathers have increased risks of developing metabolic diseases.

Whole chickens from farmers markets may have more pathogenic bacteria

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:54 AM PDT

Raw, whole chickens purchased from farmers markets throughout Pennsylvania contained significantly higher levels of bacteria that can cause foodborne illness compared to those purchased from grocery stores in the region, according to a small-scale study.

Understanding bulls' gene-rich Y chromosomes may improve herd fertility

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:53 AM PDT

The Y chromosomes of cattle have more genes and are more active than the Y chromosomes of other primates, according to researchers.

First full genome sequencing for autism: Promise for future diagnosis, prevention and treatment

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:53 AM PDT

New research has found that full genome sequencing provides the definitive look at wide ranging genetic variations associated with ASD. Inherited, de novo and X-linked genetic alterations found in one half of the affected families sequenced included four newly identified risk genes, nine known and eight candidate ASD risk genes, and in genes associated with fragile X, epilepsy or related syndromes. Some families had a combination of genes involved.

Killer whale genetics: Redefining stock structure in a marine top predator

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:53 AM PDT

By collecting 462 skin samples from both resident and transient wild killer whales in the northern North Pacific and characterizing individual genetic variability using two different genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites), scientists have discovered further subdivision within the whale stocks than was previously believed. In fact, the evidence is so strong that the researchers believe it's time to revise the killer whale stocks in the region.

Hippo pathway to better cancer treatment? Unusual key to regulating cell growth

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:53 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a potential new pathway to treat cancer by asking some odd questions about the size of animals.

As ice cover disappears, life in frigid Antarctic moves fast

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:53 AM PDT

It might be cold in the Antarctic, but that doesn't mean that life there necessarily moves slowly. A new article reveals the discovery of a surprisingly fast-growing community of glass sponges in an area formerly covered by permanent ice. With the ice at the surface disappearing, those little-known sponges are launching a seafloor takeover.

Critical pathway in cell cycle may lead to cancer development

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:52 AM PDT

Researchers' findings on chromosome shortening suggest a potential target to arrest cancer cell growth.

Researchers regenerate retina in mice using neuronal reprogramming

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 10:47 AM PDT

Researchers in Spain have managed to regenerate the retina in mice using neuronal reprogramming. There are currently several lines of research that explore the possibility of tissue regeneration through cell reprogramming. One of the mechanisms being studied is reprogramming through cell fusion.

Discovery of a strange new snow scorpionfly species in Alaska helped by Facebook

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 08:34 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered a strange new insect on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. It belongs to an enigmatic group that might help scientists understand the evolutionary origin of the Fleas.

Molecular discovery puts cancer treatment in a new perspective

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 08:34 AM PDT

Researchers have obtained ground-breaking new knowledge about proteases - important enzymes which, among other things, play a role in the development of cancer cells. The findings may be significant for the development of cancer drugs.

Delayed puberty: First estrogen receptor mutation found in a young woman

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 08:34 AM PDT

A receptor mutation that essentially blocks estrogen's action has been identified for the first time in a female, researchers report.

Solar tsunami used to measure Sun's magnetic field

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 08:34 AM PDT

A solar tsunami observed by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Japanese Hinode spacecraft has been used to provide the first accurate estimates of the Sun's magnetic field.

ID got you, under the skin

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 08:34 AM PDT

Forget fingerprints or iris recognition, the next big thing in biometrics will be a thermal imaging scan that maps the blood vessels under the skin of your face for instantaneous face recognition that would be almost impossible to spoof.

Higher BMI increases risk of gallstones, especially in women, study finds

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 08:33 AM PDT

New research reveals a causal association between elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased risk of gallstone disease. Results show women are at greater risk of developing gallstones.

Factors that may cause fluctuations in deep brain stimulation levels over time

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:33 AM PDT

Deep brain stimulation therapy blocks or modulates electrical signals in the brain to improve symptoms in patients suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and dystonia, but a new study suggests that several factors may cause electrical current to vary over time.

Cells in the early embryo battle each other to death for becoming part of the organism

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:32 AM PDT

Researchers have found that during the early stages of mammalian development, embryonic cells embark on a battle for survival. Through this battle, the less active of these cells are eliminated by their stronger sisters.

Hidden strains of HPV found in 'virus-negative' genital warts

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:32 AM PDT

Researchers assessed the DNA found in samples taken from 40 patients with 'virus-negative' genital warts. Through a general DNA sequencing approach, the researchers showed that several of the negative samples did in fact contain HPV DNA.

Earth's core affects length of day

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:31 AM PDT

Researchers have found that variations in the length of day over periods of between one and 10 years are caused by processes in the Earth's core.

Stellar monsters do not collide: No hope for a spectacular catastrophe

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:31 AM PDT

One might expect that collisions between the remains of monstrous stars, with masses reaching 200-300 times that of our Sun, would be among the most spectacular phenomena in the Universe. Perhaps they are, but we will unfortunately probably never have the chance to find out. Astrophysicists have discovered that the first such collisions will not occur until billions of years from now.

New insight into the human genome through the lens of evolution

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:31 AM PDT

By comparing the human genome to the genomes of 34 other mammals, Australian scientists have described an unexpectedly high proportion of functional elements conserved through evolution. While other studies have shown that around 5-8 percent of the genome is conserved at the level of DNA sequence, indicating that it is functional, the new study shows that in addition much more, possibly up to 30 percent, is also conserved at the level of RNA structure.

Acceptance of what cannot be changed predicts satisfaction in later life

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:30 AM PDT

Accepting what cannot be changed is key to happiness in old age after loss of independence. When older adults lose control as they move into residential care, they adapt and accept what cannot be changed in order to stay happy. According to a new study, when it comes to satisfaction in later life the ability to accept what cannot be changed is as important as the feeling of being able to exert control.

Trapping T-rays for better security scanners

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:29 AM PDT

Medical diagnostic and security scanners with higher sensitivity could result from new research into detecting T-rays (terahertz waves).

Hubble finds a true blue planet: Giant Jupiter-sized planet located 63 light-years away

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 07:28 AM PDT

Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have deduced the actual visible-light color of a planet orbiting another star 63 light-years away. If seen directly the planet, known as HD 189733b, would look like a "deep blue dot," reminiscent of Earth's color as seen from space.

Size matters for creatures of cold polar waters

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:49 AM PDT

Scientists have challenged the view that giant animals are found in polar seas because of a superabundance of oxygen in cold water.

Later cord clamping after birth increases iron levels in babies

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:49 AM PDT

Delaying clamping of the umbilical cord after birth benefits newborn babies, according to a systematic review. The authors found babies' blood and iron levels were healthier when the cord was clamped later.

Race for new temperature definition: Most accurate measurement yet of Boltzmann constant

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:48 AM PDT

Scientists have performed the most accurate measurement yet of the Boltzmann constant. While the impact of such an achievement is not immediately obvious, the measurement could revolutionize the way we define temperature, replacing the standard method that has been used for over 50 years.

Bioenergy with carbon capture: Scientists set out path for global warming reversal

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:48 AM PDT

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage can reverse the global warming trend and push temperatures back below the global target of 2°C above pre-industrial levels, even if current policies fail and we initially overshoot this target.

Do antibiotics in animal feed pose a serious risk to human health?

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:48 AM PDT

As fears rise over antibiotic resistance, two experts debate whether adding antibiotics to animal feed poses a serious risk to human health.

Combination of smoking and heavy drinking 'speeds up cognitive decline'

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:47 AM PDT

The combination of smoking and heavy drinking speeds up cognitive decline, according to new research.

Bioluminescence reveals deep-water motion in the Mediterranean

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:45 AM PDT

In 2009 and 2010, the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES detected an unusual phenomenon: the bioluminescence of deep-sea organisms suddenly increased, revealing an unexpected connection between biological activity -- bioluminescence -- and the motion of water masses in the deep ocean. Convective motion in the Gulf of Lion provides deep waters with oxygen and nutrients that boost biological activity.

Parental divorce in childhood is linked to raised inflammation in adulthood

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:45 AM PDT

People who experience parental divorce during childhood have higher levels of an inflammatory marker in the blood which is known to predict future health, according to new research from the United Kingdom.

Cells make costume changes for cardiac regeneration

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:45 AM PDT

If the heart following a heart attack is not sufficiently supplied with blood, heart tissue dies. In adult humans, the ability to heal itself is hardly developed. Scientists have now observed in the embryo of the zebrafish that muscle cells migrate from the undamaged atrium into the ventricle and thus significantly contribute to regeneration. This could serve as the basis for novel therapeutic approaches.

Surprising detail about skin cancer uncovered

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:41 AM PDT

An international team of melanoma researchers confirmed that the chances of dying from skin cancer depend strongly upon how thick the primary tumor is. But -- unexpectedly -- the team also found that those having more than one primary tumor have better survival odds.

What will the future hold for cyborgs, the fusion of humans and machines?

Posted: 11 Jul 2013 05:41 AM PDT

People composed of biotechnology are cyborgs, an amalgam of human being and technology. What direction are human beings, or should I say cyborgs, headed in?
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