Sabtu, 01 Juni 2013

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


A bad biology grade sticks around

Posted: 31 May 2013 10:27 AM PDT

Researchers have found that a low grade in a pre-requisite biology class predicts future student performance.

Circadian rhythms control body's response to intestinal infections

Posted: 31 May 2013 10:26 AM PDT

Circadian rhythms can boost the body's ability to fight intestinal bacterial infections, researchers have found.

Even with defects, graphene is strongest material in the world

Posted: 31 May 2013 08:47 AM PDT

Engineering researchers demonstrate that graphene, even if stitched together from many small crystalline grains, is almost as strong as graphene in its perfect crystalline form. This resolves a contradiction between theoretical simulations, which predicted grain boundaries can be strong, and earlier experiments, which indicated they were much weaker than the perfect lattice.

Facebook profiles raise users' self-esteem and affect behavior

Posted: 31 May 2013 08:47 AM PDT

A Facebook profile is an ideal version of self, full of photos and posts curated for the eyes of family, friends and acquaintances. A new study shows that this version of self can provide beneficial psychological effects and influence behavior.

New technique alleviates painful bone metastases, study suggests

Posted: 31 May 2013 07:55 AM PDT

A high-dose of ultrasound targeted to painful bone metastases appears to quickly bring patients relief, and with largely tolerable side effects, according to new research.

Fatigue and sleep linked to Major League Baseball performance and career longevity

Posted: 31 May 2013 07:55 AM PDT

Two new studies show that fatigue may impair strike-zone judgment during the 162 game Major League Baseball season, and a MLB player's sleepiness can predict his longevity in the league.

Elevated carbon dioxide making arid regions greener

Posted: 31 May 2013 07:54 AM PDT

Scientists have long suspected that a flourishing of green foliage around the globe, observed since the early 1980s in satellite data, springs at least in part from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere. Now, a study of arid regions around the globe finds that a carbon dioxide "fertilization effect" has, indeed, caused a gradual greening from 1982 to 2010.

Elite athletes often shine sooner or later -- but not both

Posted: 31 May 2013 07:54 AM PDT

A new study that compared the performance of elite track and field athletes younger than 20 and those 20 and older found that only a minority of the star junior athletes saw similar success as senior athletes. The researchers think physical maturation is behind the disparity, with athletes who mature early reaping the benefits early, seeing their best times, jumps and throws at a younger age than Olympians, many of whom mature later.

The scoop on bird poop: Evolving diversity of microbial life in bird guts

Posted: 31 May 2013 07:52 AM PDT

Gut bacteria are known to have a central role both in human and in animal health.  Animals acquire different bacteria as they age but how the microbial communities in the bodies of wild animals change over time is not well understood.  Scientists have examined the gastrointestinal bacteria of chick and adult black-legged kittiwakes. Surprisingly, the microbial assemblages of chicks and adults generally differ greatly, with only a few types of bacteria in common.

'Population census' of galaxies buried in dust

Posted: 31 May 2013 07:52 AM PDT

Conventional research on distant galaxies have been carried out mainly with visible light and near infrared light. However, it is possible that many galaxies in the universe have been overlooked as much of that radiation is largely absorbed by cosmic dust. That is why millimeter and submillimeter wave observations are important. Stellar light absorbed by dust is reradiated from the dust as millimeter/submillimeter waves. Therefore galaxies, even those which it has not been possible to observe with optical telescopes, can be detected using these wavebands.
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Jumat, 31 Mei 2013

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


New weapon in fight against cervical cancer

Posted: 30 May 2013 04:24 PM PDT

Scientists have found a way to target and destroy a key protein associated with the development of cervical and other cancers.

Sharks worth more in the ocean than on the menu

Posted: 30 May 2013 04:24 PM PDT

Sharks are worth more in the ocean than in a bowl of soup, according to researchers.

Good kidney health begins before birth

Posted: 30 May 2013 04:24 PM PDT

Researchers have found that conditions in the womb can affect kidney development and have serious health implications for the child not only immediately after birth, but decades later.

Probiotics prevent diarrhea related to antibiotic use, review shows

Posted: 30 May 2013 04:24 PM PDT

Probiotic supplements have the potential to prevent diarrhea caused by antibiotics, according to a new Cochrane systematic review. The authors studied Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections in patients taking antibiotics and found symptoms of diarrhea were substantially reduced when patients were also treated with probiotics.

Quitting smoking: Licensed medications are effective

Posted: 30 May 2013 04:24 PM PDT

Nicotine replacement therapy and other licensed drugs can help people quit smoking, according to a new systematic review published in The Cochrane Library. The study supports the use of the smoking cessation medications that are already widely licensed internationally, and shows that another drug licensed in Russia could hold potential as an effective and affordable treatment.

Ketamine cousin rapidly lifts depression without side effects, study suggests

Posted: 30 May 2013 02:00 PM PDT

GLYX-13, a molecular cousin to ketamine, induces similar antidepressant results without the street drug side effects, reported a new study.

Healthy lifestyle choices mean fewer memory complaints

Posted: 30 May 2013 02:00 PM PDT

To examine the impact of these lifestyle choices on memory throughout adult life, researchers polled more than 18,500 individuals between the ages of 18 and 99. As expected, problems with memory were found to increase with age, but researchers were surprised by the percentage of younger adults who also reported memory difficulties.

Biologists take snapshot of fleeting protein process

Posted: 30 May 2013 02:00 PM PDT

Structural biologists have captured the first three-dimensional crystalline snapshot of a critical but fleeting process that takes place thousands of times per second in every human cell. The research sheds new light on a protein that was discovered more than 120 years ago and could prove useful in the study of cancer and other diseases.

Climate change threatens extinction for 82 percent of California native fish

Posted: 30 May 2013 02:00 PM PDT

Of 121 native fish species in California, researchers predict 82 percent are likely to be driven to extinction or very low numbers as climate change speeds the decline of already depleted populations.

TCE exposure linked to increased risk of some cancers

Posted: 30 May 2013 02:00 PM PDT

Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure has possible links to increased liver cancer risk, and the relationship between TCE exposure and risks of cancers of low incidence and those with confounding by lifestyle and other factors need further study, according to a new study.

Innovative new nanotechnology stops bed bugs in their tracks - literally

Posted: 30 May 2013 01:58 PM PDT

Bed bugs now need to watch their step. Researchers have developed a safe, non-chemical resource that literally stops bed bugs in their tracks. This innovative new technology acts as a human-made web consisting of microfibers 50 times thinner than a human hair which entangle and trap bed bugs and other insects.

Croaking chorus of Cuban frogs make noisy new neighbors

Posted: 30 May 2013 01:58 PM PDT

Scientists have shown the adverse impact of invasive frog species' songs.

Researchers gain insight into key protein linked to cancers, neurodegenerative disorders

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:33 PM PDT

Researchers studying a key molecular player called Hsp70 that is responsible for protein homeostasis have uncovered how it binds together with another molecule responsible for intracellular energy transfer to enhance its overall activity and efficiency -- details that have previously not been well understood.

Novel approach to create red blood cells, platelets in vitro

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:33 PM PDT

A study led by Boston University School of Medicine has identified a novel approach to create an unlimited number of human red blood cells and platelets in vitro. In collaboration with Boston University School of Public Health and Boston Medical Center, the researchers differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells into these cell types, which are typically obtained through blood donations.

Study coaxes clays to make human bone

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

Whether damaged by injury, disease or age, your body as an adult can't create new bone, but maybe science can. Researchers are making strides in tissue engineering, designing scaffolds that may lead to ways to regenerate bone. Scientists have developed a novel method that uses nanosized clays to make scaffolds to mineralize bone minerals such as hydroxyapatite.

New maps show how shipping noise spans the globe

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

Scientists have modeled shipping noise on a global scale.

Sensitive new microphone modeled on fly ear

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

Using the sensitive ears of a parasitic fly for inspiration, a group of researchers has created a new type of microphone that achieves better acoustical performance than what is currently available in hearing aids.

Secrets of the cicada's sound

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

Researchers are trying to make an artificial cicada for underwater communication.

Ultrasound ‘Making Waves’ for Enhancing Biofuel Production

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

Engineers are using high-frequency sound waves to break down plant materials in order to cook up a better batch of biofuel.

New speaker system for cars creates separate 'audio zones' for front and rear seats

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

A new approach achieves a significant level of isolation between the front and rear listening zones within a car.

Native Ohioans' speaking patterns help scientists decipher famous moon landing quote

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:28 PM PDT

Speech scientists and psychologists discuss a novel approach to deciphering Armstrong's famous moon landing quote.

Pebbly rocks testify to old streambed on Mars

Posted: 30 May 2013 12:05 PM PDT

Detailed analysis and review have borne out researchers' initial interpretation of pebble-containing slabs that NASA's Mars rover Curiosity investigated last year: They are part of an ancient streambed. The rocks are the first ever found on Mars that contain streambed gravels. The sizes and shapes of the gravels embedded in these conglomerate rocks -- from the size of sand particles to the size of golf balls -- enabled researchers to calculate the depth and speed of the water that once flowed at this location.

Radiation measured by NASA's Curiosity on voyage to Mars has implications for future human missions

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:59 AM PDT

Measurements taken by NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission as it delivered the Curiosity rover to Mars in 2012 are providing NASA the information it needs to design systems to protect human explorers from radiation exposure on deep-space expeditions in the future.

Asteroid has its own moon, NASA radar reveals

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:53 AM PDT

A sequence of radar images of asteroid 1998 QE2 -- obtained by NASA scientists using the 230-foot (70-meter) Deep Space Network antenna at Goldstone, Calif. -- reveals that it is a binary asteroid. In the near-Earth population, about 16 percent of asteroids that are about 655 feet (200 meters) or larger are binary or triple systems.

Asteroids provide sustainable resource, study finds

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:48 AM PDT

The prospects of a robotic manufacturing base operating off Earth is not as far-fetched as it used to be according to a study published by a team of NASA researchers. Because asteroids are loaded with minerals that are rare on Earth, near-Earth asteroids and the asteroid belt could become the mining centers for remotely operated excavators and processing machinery. In 20 years, an industry barely imagined now could be sending refined materials, rare metals and even free, clean energy to Earth from asteroids and other bodies.

One of the moon's mysteries solved: Origin of mascon basins

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:20 AM PDT

A mystery of the moon that imperiled astronauts and spacecraft on lunar missions has been solved. Large concentrations of mass lurk on the lunar surface that can change the gravity field and either pull a spacecraft in or push it off course. Scientists have determined the origin of these mass concentrations.

Scientists capture first images of molecules before and after reaction

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:20 AM PDT

Using atomic force microscopy, chemists for the first time can capture images of molecules before and after they react, which will allow them to better tune reactions to get the products they want. Chemists and physicists joined forces to develop the technique, which could help scientists study and improve catalytic reactions like those used widely in industry to make chemicals or crack oil.

Why animals compare the present with the past

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:20 AM PDT

Humans, like other animals, compare things. We care not only how well off we are, but whether we are better or worse off than others around us, or than we were last year. New research shows that such comparisons can give individuals an evolutionary advantage.

Genetic variants linked to educational attainment

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:19 AM PDT

A multi-national team of researchers has identified genetic markers that predict educational attainment by pooling data from more than 125,000 individuals in the United States, Australia, and 13 western European countries.

Human activity echoes through Brazilian rainforest

Posted: 30 May 2013 11:19 AM PDT

The disappearance of large, fruit-eating birds from tropical forests in Brazil has caused the region's forest palms to produce smaller, less successful seeds over the past century, researchers say. The findings provide evidence that human activity can trigger fast-paced evolutionary changes in natural populations.

Water-rock reaction may provide enough hydrogen 'food' to sustain life in ocean's crust or on Mars

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:25 AM PDT

A chemical reaction between iron-containing minerals and water may produce enough hydrogen "food" to sustain microbial communities living in pores and cracks within the enormous volume of rock below the ocean floor and parts of the continents, according to a new study.

Android antiviral products easily evaded

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:25 AM PDT

Think your antivirus product is keeping your Android safe? Think again. Ten of the top Android antiviral products are rendered useless by the simplest attacks.

Nerve stimulation helps with overactive bladder

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:25 AM PDT

New research finds that symptoms of overactive bladder, or OAB, were reduced in those who received tibial nerve stimulation. The three-year results show participants with urinary frequency, urgency and involuntary loss of urine maintained significant improvement in their symptoms.

Low doses of THC (cannabis) can halt brain damage, study suggests

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:25 AM PDT

Medical cannabis is often used by sufferers of chronic ailments, including cancer and post-traumatic stress disorder, to combat pain and other symptoms. Now a researcher says that the drug has neuroprotective qualities as well, protecting the brain from long-term cognitive damage in the wake of injury from lack of oxygen, seizures, or toxic drugs.

Global warming caused by CFCs, not carbon dioxide, researcher claims in controversial study

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:24 AM PDT

Chlorofluorocarbons are to blame for global warming since the 1970s and not carbon dioxide, a researcher claims in a controversial new study. CFCs are already known to deplete ozone, but in-depth statistical analysis now suggests that CFCs are also the key driver in global climate change, rather than carbon dioxide emissions, the researcher argues.

Cost of resiliency in kids uncovered

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:24 AM PDT

Children living in poverty who appear to succeed socially may be failing biologically. Students able to overcome the stress of growing up poor are labeled "resilient" because of their ability to overcome adversity, but researchers found this resiliency has health costs that last well into adulthood.

Rainforests take the heat, paleontologists show

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:24 AM PDT

Rainforests thrived during previous global warming events, say paleontologists.

How turtles got their shells: Fossil of extinct South African reptile provides clues

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:24 AM PDT

Through careful study of an ancient ancestor of modern turtles, researchers now have a clearer picture of how the turtles' most unusual shell came to be. The findings help to fill a 30- to 55-million-year gap in the turtle fossil record through study of an extinct South African reptile known as Eunotosaurus.

Brain makes its own version of Valium

Posted: 30 May 2013 10:24 AM PDT

Researchers have found that a naturally occurring protein secreted only in discrete areas of the mammalian brain may act as a Valium-like brake on certain types of epileptic seizures.

Soccer training improves heart health of men with type 2 diabetes

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:13 AM PDT

A new study demonstrates that soccer training improves heart function, reduces blood pressure and elevates exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Soccer training also reduces the need for medication.

New single virus detection techniques for faster disease diagnosis

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:13 AM PDT

Two independent teams have developed new optics-based methods for determining the exact viral load of a sample by counting individual virus particles. These new methods are faster and cheaper than standard tests and they offer the potential to conduct the measurements in a medical office or hospital instead of a laboratory.

Comet ISON is hurtling toward uncertain destiny with Sun

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:13 AM PDT

A new series of images from Gemini Observatory shows Comet C/2012 S1 racing toward an uncomfortably close rendezvous with the Sun. In late November the comet could present a stunning sight in the twilight sky and remain easily visible, or even brilliant, into early December of this year.

New agent inhibits HCV replication in mouse models: No resistance seen

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:13 AM PDT

Treatments against hepatitis C virus have only been partially successful. A major problem is that antivirals generate drug resistance. Now scientists have developed agents that bind to the business end of a critical protein, disabling it so successfully that no resistance has arisen.

Interleukin-22 protects against post-influenza bacterial superinfection

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:13 AM PDT

Researchers have shown in a mouse model that interleukin-22 protects against bacterial superinfections that can arise following influenza.

Omega-3 fatty acids may help heal a broken heart

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:11 AM PDT

Procedures like angioplasty, stenting and bypass surgery may save lives, but they also cause excessive inflammation and scarring, which ultimately can lead to permanent disability and even death. A new research report shows that naturally derived compounds from polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3s) may reduce the inflammation associated with these procedures to help arteries more fully and completely heal.

New gene delivery method: Magnetic nanoparticles

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:11 AM PDT

Stent angioplasty saves lives, but comes with complications. A new nanoparticle gene delivery method will hopefully overcome limitations of gene therapy vectors and prevent complications associated with stenting. Stents are the platform for magnetically targeted gene delivery, where genes are moved to cells at arterial injury locations without side effects. These nanoparticles protect genes and help them reach their target in active form, a challenge in gene therapy.

New discovery permits rapid diagnosis and treatment of sepsis

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:11 AM PDT

Despite advances in treating infections and disease, effective treatments for sepsis remain elusive. New research could help health care providers predict who may or may not develop sepsis, and facilitate new therapies to address the root causes, rather than just managing the symptoms. This also may benefit patients suffering from viral infections, as well as chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Newly discovered hormone makes ovaries grow

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:11 AM PDT

A newly discovered hormone produced by the eggs of human females may improve the effectiveness of current fertility treatments for women and possibly lead to entirely new treatments altogether. Researchers have identified a new hormone called "R-spondin2" that promotes follicle development and stimulates ovary growth.

Why female loggerhead sea turtles always return to their place of birth

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:11 AM PDT

For a better protection of marine turtles, scientists are trying to understand why they return to their birthplace in order to reproduce after rather long distance migrations. Using molecular tools applied to turtles from the Cape Verde islands, scientists found females from different islands have different immune genes, suggesting that returning home to reproduce is linked to advantages in parasite resistance.

Rabbit wears contact lenses with light-emitting diode: New class of transparent, stretchable electrodes

Posted: 30 May 2013 08:09 AM PDT

Scientists have demonstrated that a live rabbit could wear contact lenses fitted with inorganic light-emitting diode with no side effects. This new class of hybrid transparent and stretchable electrode paves the way for flexible displays, solar cells, and electronics.

Land-based carbon offsets: False hope? Forest and soil carbon is important, but does not offset fossil fuel emissions

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:50 AM PDT

Leading world climate change experts have thrown cold water on the idea that planting trees can offset carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. Land carbon sinks cannot solve the problem of atmospheric carbon emissions but they legitimize the ongoing use of fossil fuels.

Small dams on Chinese river harm environment more than expected, study finds

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:50 AM PDT

A fresh look at the environmental impacts of dams on an ecologically diverse and partially protected river in China found that small dams can pose a greater threat to ecosystems and natural landscape than large dams. The research team's surveys of habitat loss and damage at several dam sites on the Nu River and its tributaries in Yunnan Province revealed that, watt-for-watt, the environmental harm from small dams was often greater than from large dams.

MRSA study slashes deadly infections in sickest hospital patients

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:50 AM PDT

Using germ-killing soap and ointment on all intensive-care unit (ICU) patients can reduce bloodstream infections by up to 44 percent and significantly reduce the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in ICUs. A new study tested three MRSA prevention strategies and found that using germ-killing soap and ointment on all ICU patients was more effective than other strategies.

Epigenetic biomarkers may predict if a specific diet and exercise regimen will work

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:49 AM PDT

Would you try a diet and exercise regimen knowing in advance it would actually help you lose weight? New research shows that this could become reality. Scientists have identified five epigenetic biomarkers in adolescents associated with better weight loss at the beginning of a weight loss program. This could help predict an individual's response to weight loss intervention, and offer targets for enhancing a weight loss program's effects.

Give barefoot running the boot?

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:48 AM PDT

Barefoot running has been making headlines ever since 1960, when a shoeless Abebe Bikila set a new world-record marathon time at the Rome Olympics. Even manufacturers have muscled in on the trend over the years, with most now offering their own version of 'barefoot' or 'minimalist' shoes.

Information transmission a good predictor of credit crisis

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:48 AM PDT

The recent credit crisis was preceded by a sharp increase in the transmission of information in the largest derivatives market. Such transmissions can therefore serve as indicators for the instability of the market. A team of researchers have discovered this unexpected link.

Immune system to fight brain tumors

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:48 AM PDT

Research gives hope that one of the most serious types of brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, could be fought by the patients' own immune system. The tumors are difficult to remove with surgery because the tumor cells grow into the surrounding healthy brain tissue. A patient with the disease therefore does not usually survive much longer than a year after the discovery of the tumor.

Origins of key cells in the thymus

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:46 AM PDT

Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) allow the thymus to ensure that the body's T cells are able to distinguish between potentially harmful foreign antigens and those that are produced by the body itself. New research suggests that mTECs do not share a common progenitor with cortical-thymic TECs (cTECs) that produce T cells, but may actually evolve from them.

Ancient Egyptians accessorized with meteorites

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:46 AM PDT

Researchers have found conclusive proof that Ancient Egyptians used meteorites to make symbolic accessories for their dead.

New mathematical model links space-time theories

Posted: 30 May 2013 06:46 AM PDT

Researchers have taken a significant step in a project to unravel the secrets of the structure of our Universe.
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