Minggu, 24 Mei 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Auroras on Mars

Posted: 23 May 2015 07:21 AM PDT

One day, when humans go to Mars, they might find that, occasionally, the Red Planet has green skies. NASA's MAVEN spacecraft has detected evidence of widespread auroras in Mars's northern hemisphere. Unlike Earth, Mars does not have a global magnetic field that envelops the entire planet. Instead, Mars has umbrella-shaped magnetic fields that sprout out of the ground like mushrooms, here and there, but mainly in the southern hemisphere. These umbrellas are remnants of an ancient global field that decayed billions of years ago.

Mars rover's laser-zapping instrument gets sharper vision

Posted: 23 May 2015 07:17 AM PDT

Tests on Mars have confirmed success of a repair to the autonomous focusing capability of the Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover.

Curiosity rover adjusts route up Martian mountain

Posted: 23 May 2015 07:14 AM PDT

NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has just climbed a hill to approach an alternative site for investigating a geological boundary, after a comparable site proved hard to reach.

'Deep web search' may help scientists

Posted: 23 May 2015 07:09 AM PDT

When you do a simple Web search on a topic, the results that pop up aren't the whole story. The Internet contains a vast trove of information -- sometimes called the "Deep Web" -- that isn't indexed by search engines: information that would be useful for tracking criminals, terrorist activities, sex trafficking and the spread of diseases. Scientists could also use it to search for images and data from spacecraft.

Birds 'weigh' peanuts and choose heavier ones

Posted: 22 May 2015 02:47 PM PDT

Mexican Jays (Aphelocoma wollweberi) distinguish between heavier and lighter peanuts without opening the nuts. The birds do it by shaking the nuts in their beaks, which allows them to 'feel' nut heaviness and to listen to sounds produced by peanuts during handling.

From chicken to dinosaur: Scientists experimentally 'reverse evolution' of perching toe

Posted: 22 May 2015 02:45 PM PDT

A unique adaptation in the foot of birds is the presence of a thumb-like opposable toe, which allows them to grasp and perch.  However, in their dinosaur ancestors, this toe was small and non- opposable, and did not even touch the ground, resembling the dewclaws of dogs and cats. Remarkably, the embryonic development of birds provides a parallel of this evolutionary history: The toe starts out like their dinosaur ancestors, but then its base (the metatarsal) becomes twisted, making it opposable.

Vaccines developed for H5N1, H7N9 avian influenza strains

Posted: 22 May 2015 12:23 PM PDT

Researchers have developed vaccines for H5N1 and H7N9, two new strains of avian influenza that can be transmitted from poultry to humans. The strains have led to the culling of millions of commercial chickens and turkeys as well as the death of hundreds of people.
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Sabtu, 23 Mei 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

How meteorological partnership between US, Cuba was created over 20 years

Posted: 22 May 2015 10:16 AM PDT

The two-decade-long process to form an active meteorological partnership between the United States and Cuba has been described in a new article. While the U.S. and Cuba have shared meteorological information and data relating to hurricanes and other tropical storms starting as early as the mid-1800's, this is the first time a partnership of this level has been created; it included the shipping and installation of sensitive GPS monitoring equipment, something that would normally not be allowed by either government.

Scientists create mice with a major genetic cause of ALS, frontotemporal dementia

Posted: 22 May 2015 10:16 AM PDT

A novel mouse has been developed that exhibits the symptoms and neurodegeneration associated with the most common genetic forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease), both of which are caused by a mutation in the a gene called C9ORF72.

Proton therapy has fewer side effects in esophageal cancer patients

Posted: 22 May 2015 10:16 AM PDT

New research has found that esophageal cancer patients treated with proton therapy experienced significantly less toxic side effects, including nausea, blood abnormalities and loss of appetite, than patients treated with older radiation therapies.

The Viking's grave and the sunken ship: New photogrammetry method transforms archaeological sites

Posted: 22 May 2015 10:15 AM PDT

Mapping archaeological digs takes plenty of time and a lot of measuring, photographing, drawing and note taking. Now, most of this work can be done with a technique called photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is a method that uses two-dimensional images of an archaeological find to construct a 3D model.

New computational technique advances color 3D printing process

Posted: 22 May 2015 08:22 AM PDT

A technique has been developed that enables hydrographic printing, a widely used industrial method for transferring color inks on a thin film to the surface of 3D objects, to color these surfaces with the most precise alignment ever attained. This new computational method, which simulates the printing process and predicts color film distortion during hydrographic immersion, generates a colored film that guarantees exact alignment of the surface textures to the object.

Plant biosecurity course combats wheat blast

Posted: 22 May 2015 08:22 AM PDT

Wheat blast, an emerging disease that threatens worldwide food security, is the focus of a plant biosecurity course at an American university. The course is designed to help participants learn how to contain and exclude a plant pathogen.

Robot masters new skills through trial and error

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:54 AM PDT

Researchers have developed algorithms that enable robots to learn motor tasks through trial and error using a process that more closely approximates the way humans learn, marking a major milestone in the field of artificial intelligence.

Best and safest blood pressure treatments in kidney, diabetes patients compiled

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:53 AM PDT

The first definitive summary of the best and safest blood pressure lowering treatments for kidney disease and diabetes patients has been compiled by clinicians. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease around the world, and people often have both. Chronic kidney disease caused by diabetes always affects both kidneys and generally gets worse over time, often leading to kidney failure requiring dialysis treatment or a kidney transplant.

Study uses farm data to aid in slowing evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Although researchers and industry personnel have made recommendations to slow the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, an understanding of the patterns and causes of the resistance has been limited. A recently published study looking at glyphosate-resistant waterhemp is providing valuable evidence that points to management practices as the driving force behind herbicide resistance, and that herbicide mixing, as opposed to herbicide rotation, is the most effective tool in managing resistance.

An evolutionary heads-up: The brain size advantage

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Animals with large brains are considered to be more intelligent and more successful than those with smaller brains. Researchers have now provided the first experimental evidence that large brains provide an evolutionary advantage. Large-brained female fish have a higher survival rate than those with small brains when faced with a predator, although brain size surprisingly did not influence male survival.

Ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir: Hint of added benefit in further patient group

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Documents subsequently submitted by the manufacturer show an advantage in sustained virologic response also for hepatitis C infection of genotype 1 with HIV coinfection without cirrhosis of the liver, reviewers report.

Physicists develop efficient method of signal transmission from nanocomponents

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner.

Estuaries protect Dungeness crabs from deadly parasites

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:53 AM PDT

Parasitic worms can pose a serious threat to the Dungeness crab, a commercially important fishery species found along the west coast of North America. The worms are thought to have caused or contributed to the crash of the crab fishery of central California during the last half century. New research shows that infected crabs can rid themselves of parasites by moving into the less salty water of estuaries. Low salinity kills the worms creating a parasite refuge for the crabs.

Go fish! Ancient birds evolved specialist diving adaptations

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:52 AM PDT

A new study of some primitive birds from the Cretaceous shows how several separate lineages evolved adaptations for diving. Living at the same time as the dinosaurs, Hesperornithiform bird fossils have been found in North America, Europe and Asia in rocks 65-95 million years old. This research shows that separate lineages became progressively more adept at diving into water to catch fishes, like modern day loons and grebes.

How a schizophrenia risk gene affects the brain

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:52 AM PDT

Brain imaging studies have already revealed that mental illnesses involve alterations in both the structure and connectivity of the brain. Scientists have now, for the first time, shown how the disruption of a key gene involved in mental illness impacts on the brain.

From reverberating chaos to concert halls, 'good acoustics' is culturally subjective

Posted: 22 May 2015 07:42 AM PDT

Play a flute in Carnegie Hall, and the tone will resonate and fill the space. Play that same flute in the Grand Canyon, and the sound waves will crash against the rock walls, folding back in sonic chaos. The disparity is clear – to the modern listener, the instrument belongs in an auditorium. The response of audiences and performers to acoustic characteristics is a function of their worldview, and it is as fluid as the environment they inhabit, researchers say.

Enhancing knowledge crucial to improving energy-saving behaviors, study shows

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:35 AM PDT

Increasing public knowledge and understanding about energy issues is vital if improved energy-saving behaviors are to be encouraged among individuals and organizations, a study suggests.

Faster heart rate linked to diabetes risk

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:35 AM PDT

An association between resting heart rate and diabetes suggests that heart rate measures could identify individuals with a higher future risk of diabetes, according to an international team of researchers.

Anticipating temptation may reduce unethical behavior, research finds

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:35 AM PDT

Ethical dilemmas can present a self-control conflict between pursuing immediate benefits through behaving dishonestly and pursuing long-term benefits through honesty. New research has found that factors that facilitate self-control for other goals can also promote self-behavior. The researchers conclude that identifying a self-control conflict and anticipating a temptation are two necessary preconditions for ethical decision making.

Breastfeeding protects against environmental pollution

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:34 AM PDT

Living in a city with a high level of vehicle traffic or close to a steel works means living with two intense sources of environmental pollution. However, a study indicates that the harmful pollution particle matter and nitrogen dioxide disappears in breastfed babies during the first four months of life. According to the results of the research, breastfeeding plays a protective role in the presence of these two atmospheric pollutants.

3D geological tour of the Guadalquivir basin using Google Earth

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:34 AM PDT

A research team has developed a tool that allows a 3D journey in ten sites of geological and palaeontological interest in the Guadalquivir basin (Huelva, Spain). In the virtual tour, developed with Google Earth, you can visit and explore treasures of this area, such as records of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, using tablets and smartphones.

New method to map poaching threats

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:33 AM PDT

Ecologists have developed a new method to better identify where poachers operate in protected areas. Analysing 12 years of ranger-collected data, different types of threats were monitored and recorded, including the commercial hunting of large mammals (elephants, hippos and buffalos), the setting of snares for smaller wildlife, harvesting of timber, illegal grazing, the collection of thatch and other products, and illegal fishing.

The winners and the losers of the California water crisis

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:33 AM PDT

A new article highlights the widening gap of inequality between the wealthy and the poor of California, specifically in relation to the State's current drought. The problem, it states, is two fold. First, California's water systems are described as "antiquated and dysfunctional" due to the State's reluctance to challenge "historic seniority" of water rights where corporate farmers can water thousands of acres of land at a subsidized federal cost without being required to report their groundwater usage, leaving a number of low-income communities with no water what so ever. Secondly, the authors say that those at the top level of society feel less compelled to change their behaviours when it comes to water conservation.

Subconscious learning shapes pain responses

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:33 AM PDT

People can be conditioned to associate images with particular pain responses – such as improved tolerance to pain – even when they are not consciously aware of the images, research suggests.

New mechanism for Alzheimer's disease confirmed

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:33 AM PDT

Decreased removal of toxic peptides in the brain causes the onset and first clinical signs of Alzheimer's disease, research suggests, rather than overproduction as has previously been assumed. This information can now be used to target specific genes to enhance their function in the brain of elderly or people at risk.

American Indians disproportionately disciplined at school compared to white students

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:32 AM PDT

School disciplinary actions handed down to students at Utah public schools disproportionately impact American Indian children over all other ethnicities enrolled in the state's public education system, new research reveals. Although American Indian students comprise the smallest student demographic in Utah, they have the largest percentage of students referred to law enforcement and arrested at school.

Microfluidic cell-squeezing device opens new possibilities for cell-based vaccines

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:32 AM PDT

Researchers have shown that they can use a microfluidic cell-squeezing device to introduce specific antigens inside the immune system's B cells, providing a new approach to developing and implementing antigen-presenting cell vaccines.

Depressed people may have difficulty following emotional speech

Posted: 22 May 2015 05:32 AM PDT

Psychoacoustics identifies five basic types of emotional speech: angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral. In order to fully understand what's happening with speech perception, a research team studied how depressed individuals perceive these different kinds of emotional speech in multi-tonal environments.

Facebook status updates reveal low self-esteem and narcissism

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:37 PM PDT

People who post Facebook status updates about their romantic partner are more likely to have low self-esteem, while those who brag about diets, exercise, and accomplishments are typically narcissists, according to new research.

Head injuries could result in neurodegenerative disease in rugby union players

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:37 PM PDT

Until now, the association between head injuries and neurodegenerative disease, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), has predominantly been made with boxers. Now, the first case has been reported showing an association between exposure to head injuries in rugby union players and an increased risk in neurodegenerative disease.

Human stem cell model reveals molecular cues critical to neurovascular unit formation

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:36 PM PDT

Using human embryonic stem cells, researchers have created a model that allows them to track cellular behavior during the earliest stages of human development in real-time. The model reveals, for the first time, how autonomic neurons and blood vessels come together to form the neurovascular unit.

Supercomputer unlocks secrets of plant cells to pave the way for more resilient crops

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:06 PM PDT

Scientists have moved a step closer to identifying the nanostructure of cellulose -- the basic structural component of plant cell walls. The insights could pave the way for more disease resistant varieties of crops and increase the sustainability of the pulp, paper and fiber industry -- one of the main uses of cellulose.

Time is muscle in acute heart failure

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:06 PM PDT

Urgent diagnosis and treatment in acute heart failure (AHF) has been emphasized for the first time in joint recommendations recently published. This is the first time cardiologists, emergency physicians, intensivists and nurses from Europe and the USA have joined forces to agree a treatment algorithm for patients with AHF.

Raising a glass to the holidays: Research finds extra alcohol sold, consumed on holidays

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:06 PM PDT

Asking people about what they drink on holidays and other special occasions shows we drink around the equivalent of 12 million more bottles of wine a week than we previously thought in England. Previous surveys on alcohol consumption have not accounted for all the alcohol that is sold. This research appears to have found many of these 'missing units.'

Serengeti Park disappearing

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:06 PM PDT

A huge wildebeest herd migrates across the open, parched plains. Dust swirls up from the many hooves pounding the ground, and forms a haze over the landscape. The setting sun gives the scene a golden tinge. Serengeti National Park is the symbol of Africa's abundant wildlife. The park as we know it today could be history within a few decades, experts say.

Time to move beyond 'Medieval' cyber security approach, expert says

Posted: 21 May 2015 06:05 PM PDT

The nation's approach to cyber security has much in common with medieval defense tactics, and that needs to change, says a cyber security expert.

Study on neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb

Posted: 21 May 2015 11:40 AM PDT

The integration of new neurons in the adult brain is a phenomenon more generally compromised in the brains of depressed patients, new research shows. This new work confirms that neurogenesis in the human olfactory bulb is a marginal phenomenon in adults. These findings shed light on the special features of the human brain.

Using healthy skin to identify cancer’s origins: Cancer-associated DNA changes in 25 per cent of normal skin cells

Posted: 21 May 2015 11:38 AM PDT

Normal skin contains an unexpectedly high number of cancer-associated mutations, according to a study. The findings illuminate the first steps cells take towards becoming a cancer and demonstrate the value of analyzing normal tissue to learn more about the origins of the disease.

Implantable micro-device to monitor oxygen in glioma to improve treatment outcomes

Posted: 21 May 2015 11:38 AM PDT

Monitoring oxygen levels in human tumors growing in a mouse brain using EPR oximetry with implantable resonators provides opportunities to evaluate and optimize various strategies being developed to improve oxygen levels in the glioma.
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