Rabu, 01 Juli 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


South Africans used milk-based paint 49,000 years ago

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 05:20 PM PDT

Scientists have discovered a milk-and ochre-based paint dating to 49,000 years ago that inhabitants may have used to adorn themselves with or to decorate stone or wooden slabs.

Causal pathway may link job stress, sleep disturbances

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 05:20 PM PDT

There may be a reciprocal, causal pathway between job strain and disturbed sleep, implying that interventions to treat sleep problems may improve work satisfaction, researchers have learned.

Does radiation from X-rays and CT scans really cause cancer?

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 05:20 PM PDT

In recent years, there has been widespread media coverage of studies purporting to show that radiation from X-rays, CT scans and other medical imaging causes cancer. But such studies have serious flaws, including their reliance on an unproven statistical model, according to a recent article.

New model of cosmic stickiness favors 'Big Rip' demise of universe

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Mathematicians and physicists have come up with a new approach to calculate cosmic viscosity and the formulation favors the 'Big Rip' scenario for the end of the universe.

Hospital-wide program for delirium, alcohol withdrawal and suicide/harm impacts readmission rates

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:52 PM PDT

In a new report, clinicians describe the implementation and effectiveness of a hospital-wide clinical improvement initiative for acute care patients at risk for delirium, alcohol withdrawal and suicide harm and demonstrate its effectiveness in reducing readmission rates.

Protein's impact on colorectal cancer is dappled

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Researchers have discovered a cell signaling pathway that appears to exert some control over initiation and progression of colorectal cancer, the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. A key protein in the pathway also appears to be predictive of cancer survival rates.

Location isn't everything but timing is for certain spawning fish

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Each year, hundreds to thousands of fish aggregate at highly predictable times and locations to spawn, producing larvae that will spend at least a month in the plankton before settling to reef habitat. The larvae of some species of reef fish appear to survive better depending on the timing of when they were spawned, according to new research.

Careers outside of academia richly rewarding for PhD physicists

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:17 PM PDT

10 years after graduating, many have found financially solid and meaningful employment in the private sector, according to a new report.

Chemists characterize 3-D macroporous hydrogels

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:15 PM PDT

Chemists have developed two novel methods to characterize 3-D macroporous hydrogels -- materials that hold great promise for developing 'smart' responsive materials that can be used for catalysts, chemical detectors, tissue engineering scaffolds and absorbents for carbon capture.

Folate biomarkers determined

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:15 PM PDT

An international paper on folate biomarkers is part of an initiative to provide evidence-based guidance for the global nutrition and public health community. The comprehensive study on folate, an essential B vitamin required for DNA synthesis and normal growth and development, represents a consensus of the top folate scientists globally. A major birth defect affecting the spinal cord -- spina bifida, for example -- and brain can be prevented by maternal consumption of sufficient folate prior to and during the very early stages of fetal development.

Targeting mistreatment of women during childbirth

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:14 PM PDT

Scientists have synthesized qualitative and quantitative evidence to form a clearer picture of the extent and types of mistreatment that occurs during childbirth in health facilities. Such initiatives are key to developing policies to reduce and ultimately eliminate this inhumane and degrading phenomenon.

Innovative imaging study shows that the spinal cord learns on its own

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:14 PM PDT

The spinal cord engages in its own learning of motor tasks independent of the brain, according to an innovative imaging study. The results of the study may offer new opportunities for rehabilitation after spinal cord injury.

Women's faces get redder at ovulation, but human eyes can't pick up on it

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 12:14 PM PDT

Past research shows men find female faces more attractive at peak fertility. A new study shows an increased redness of women's face skin at the most fertile point of ovulatory cycle, but just under the threshold for detectability, ruling out skin coloration as a driver of the attractiveness effect.

Yosemite forest fire example of possible things to come

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 11:32 AM PDT

Forest composition, ground cover and topography are the best predictors of forest fire severity in the Western US, according to physical geographers who also see that the long history of fire exclusion on federal lands leads to uncharacteristically severe burns and potentially changes the dynamics of forests and their recovery.

Osteopathic manipulative therapy significantly improves low back pain in postpartum women

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 11:17 AM PDT

Osteopathic manipulative therapy decreased postpartum low back pain by over 70 percent in women who had given birth at least three months before beginning treatment, according to a new study.

Scientists program solitary yeast cells to say 'hello' to one another

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 11:17 AM PDT

Researchers have produced cell-to-cell communication in baker's yeast -- a first step in learning to build multicellular organisms or artificial organs from scratch.

High-fat diet may alleviate mitochondrial disease

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 10:53 AM PDT

Mice that have a genetic version of mitochondrial disease can easily be mistaken for much older animals by the time they are nine months old: they have thinning grey hair, osteoporosis, poor hearing, infertility, heart problems and have lost weight. Dietary fat, coupled with a natural hormone, can relieve symptoms in these mice, researchers have found.

Eye color may be linked to alcohol dependence

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 10:52 AM PDT

People with blue eyes might have a greater chance of becoming alcoholics, according to a unique new study by genetic researchers.

Major midwest flood risk underestimated by as much as five feet, study finds

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 10:52 AM PDT

As floodwaters surge along major rivers in the midwestern United States, a new study suggests federal agencies are underestimating historic 100-year flood levels on these rivers by as much as five feet, a miscalculation that has serious implications for future flood risks, flood insurance and business development in an expanding floodplain.

Should drinking water be centralized or decentralized?

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 10:51 AM PDT

A Canadian civil engineering graduate evaluates claims that more centralized US-style regulation of drinking water would improve outcomes for Canadians. The paper finds limited support for these claims but suggests they reflect deeply held Canadian political and cultural values.

Atomic force microscope advance leads to new breast cancer research

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 10:51 AM PDT

Researchers who developed a high-speed form of atomic force microscopy have shown how to image the physical properties of live breast cancer cells, for the first time revealing details about how deactivation of a key protein may lead to metastasis.

Cardiac survival rates around 6 percent for those occurring outside of a hospital

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 10:51 AM PDT

Cardiac arrest strikes almost 600,000 people each year, killing the vast majority of those individuals, says a new report. Following a cardiac arrest, each minute without treatment decreases the likelihood of surviving without disability, and survival rates depend greatly on where the cardiac arrest occurs, said the committee that carried out the study and wrote the report.

For women with bipolar disorder, sleep quality affects mood

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:24 AM PDT

Poor sleep is associated with negative mood in women with bipolar disorder, according to researchers. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. The condition is marked by extreme mood episodes characterized as manic (highs), depressive (lows) or mixed.

Healthy diet linked to lower death rates among low-income residents in Southeastern USA

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:24 AM PDT

Eating a healthy diet was linked with a lower risk of dying from heart disease, stroke, cancer or other diseases among a population of low-income individuals living in the Southeastern U.S., according to investigators. Nearly two-thirds of the participants in the study were African-American.

Similarities between embryos, breast tumors identified

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:24 AM PDT

It may seem incredulous, but breast tumors may have something in common with embryos, at least in mice, say researchers. Tumors that resemble six-day-old mouse embryos are more prone to metastasize than those that look like tissues from adult mice, researchers discovered. Specifically, they noticed that the same genes that are turned on in developing mice are also present in metastatic tumors.

Alcohol sensitizes brain response to food aromas, increases food intake in women

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:22 AM PDT

The first study of its kind measuring the brain's role in mediating caloric intake following alcohol consumption among women shows that alcohol exposure sensitizes the brain's response to food aromas and increases caloric intake.

To shed weight, go vegan

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:18 AM PDT

People on a vegetarian diet, and especially those following a vegan one that includes no animal products, see better results than dieters on other weight-reducing plans. In fact, they can lose around two kilograms more on the short term, say researchers after reviewing the results of twelve diet trials.

Europeans have unknowingly contributed to spread of invasive plant species in USA

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

The role of plant traits might be overestimated by biologists in studies on plant invasiveness. Anthropogenic factors such as whether the species was being cultivated proved to be more important. These conclusions were made from a study on Central European plants that were introduced by humans to North America and over time became naturalized in this continent.

Graphene flexes its electronic muscles

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

Flexing graphene may be the most basic way to control its electrical properties, according to calculations by theoretical physicists.

Research reveals new insights into a key antibiotic target in the fight against TB

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

A key process in the bacterium that causes tuberculosis has been unraveled by researchers, potentially paving the way for new antibiotics to fight the disease. TB is one of the world's top infectious killers, causing 1.5 million deaths every year. The TB bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is estimated to be present in up to a third of the world's population, although active TB only develops in around one in 10 cases.

Ocean algae will cope well in varying climates

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

Tiny marine algae that play a critical role in supporting life on Earth may be better equipped to deal with future climate change than previously expected, research shows.

Research redefines the properties of faults when rock melts

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

A new discovery in the study of fault slip seeks to redefine our understanding of how melt-bearing faults behave, say scientists. Fault slip occurs in many natural environments -- including during earthquakes -- when large stress build-ups are rapidly released as two sliding tectonic plates grinds together. In this process a large amount of the energy released can be converted to heat, that leads to frictional melting.

July 4: Short-term spike in particulate matter in US

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

From the founding of America, the Fourth of July has been synonymous with fireworks. A new study quantifies the surge in fine particulate matter -- particles that are two and one half microns in diameter (PM2.5) -- on July 4, using observations from the 315 US air quality monitoring sites that operated from 1999 to 2013. While scientists have known that fireworks displays produce a surge in fine particulates, the new study is the first nationwide quantitative analysis of the effects.

Hantaviruses are highly dependent on cell membrane cholesterol to infect humans

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:17 AM PDT

Hantaviruses use cholesterol in cell walls to gain access into cells and infect humans, according to laboratory research. Multiple genes involved in cholesterol sensing, regulation and production, including key components to a chemical pathway called SREBP (sterol response element binding protein), are critical to hantaviruses gaining entry, the researchers found.

Human urine helps prevent bacteria from sticking to bladder cells

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:16 AM PDT

Human urine contains factors that prevent a common culprit in urinary tract infections (UTIs), uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria, from properly attaching to bladder cells, a necessary step for infection. The research reveals a weakness that could be exploited to develop more effective, non-antibiotic treatments for UTIs.

Omega-3 supplements, antioxidants may help with preclinical Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:16 AM PDT

Here's more evidence that fish oil supplementation and antioxidants might be beneficial for at least some people facing Alzheimer's disease: A new report describes the findings of a very small study in which people with mild clinical impairment, such as those in the very early stages of the disease, saw clearance of the hallmark amyloid-beta protein and reduced inflammation in neurological tissues.

Scientists propose new model of mysterious barrier to fusion known as the 'density limit'

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a detailed model of the source of a puzzling limitation on fusion reactions.

Cheek muscles hold up better than leg muscles in space

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

Muscles need gravity to maintain optimal health, and when they do not have it, they deteriorate. A new report, however, suggests that this might not be true for all muscles, offering hope that there may be ways to preserve muscle mass and strength for individuals in low-resistance environments, whether it be the microgravity of space, extended periods in a hospital bed, or a 9-5 job behind a desk.

Sialic acid: Key to unlocking brain disorders

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

A common molecule found in higher animals, including humans, affects brain structure, researchers report. They found that mice that had altered sialic acid attachment had significant neurological problems when compared to normal mice.

Water used for hydraulic fracturing varies widely across United States

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

The amount of water required to hydraulically fracture oil and gas wells varies widely across the country, according to the first national-scale analysis and map of hydraulic fracturing water usage detailed in a new study.

Vitamin A supplementation may cause immune system to 'forget' past infections

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

Although vitamin A supplementation can have profound health benefits when someone is deficient, new evidence is emerging to show that vitamin A supplementation above and beyond normal levels may have negative health consequences. A new research report may help to explain why too much vitamin A can be harmful.

Pinaverium shows promising results for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

Pinaverium offers quick and effective relief of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, according to clinical trial results. Pinaverium bromide (pinaverium), an antispasmodic, is used widely in many countries around the world, including European countries, Canada and Mexico. However, original clinical studies on pinaverium are scarce and there has been no convincing evidence for its effectiveness and safety.

Spouses, relatives of celiac disease patients at risk for autoimmune diseases

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

Both spouses and first-degree relatives of patients with celiac disease are at increased risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease, according to a study. While the excess risk found in celiac first-degree relatives can be explained by genetics, the higher risk in spouses points to the impact of environmental factors. It is also possible that spouses share microbiome characteristics with their husband/wife, which might impact the risk of developing and diagnosing other autoimmune diseases.

New cardiac arrest recommendations: Increased CPR/AED training will improve survival rates

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:14 AM PDT

In response to a new Institute of Medicine report on improving cardiac arrest survival rates, the Red Cross is taking a key first step in convening those who can make a significant difference in strengthening the entire system of response to cardiac arrest. The new collaborative will establish common goals, promote public education and training opportunities for CPR and defibrillation, and develop national accreditation standards for hospitals and health care systems.

Chitosan coated, chemotherapy packed nanoparticles may target cancer stem cells

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

Nanoparticles packed with a clinically used chemotherapy drug and coated with an oligosaccharide derived from the carapace of crustaceans might effectively target and kill cancer stem-like cells, according to a recent study.

Repeated courses of antibiotics may profoundly alter children's development

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

A new animal study adds to growing evidence that multiple courses of commonly used antibiotics may have a significant impact on children's development. Female mice treated with two classes of widely used childhood antibiotics, including amoxicillin, gained more weight and developed larger bones than untreated mice. Both of the antibiotics also disrupted the gut microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the intestinal tract.

New study reveals mechanism regulating methane emissions in freshwater wetlands

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

Though they occupy a small fraction of the Earth's surface, freshwater wetlands are the largest natural source of methane going into the atmosphere. New research identifies an unexpected process that acts as a key gatekeeper regulating methane emissions from these freshwater environments.The study describes how high rates of anaerobic methane oxidation substantially reduce atmospheric emissions of methane from freshwater wetlands.

How small genetic change in Yersinia pestis changed human history

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

While studying Yersinia pestis, the bacteria responsible for epidemics of plague such as the Black Death, scientists found a single small genetic change that fundamentally influenced the evolution of the deadly pathogen, and thus the course of human history. They demonstrated how the acquisition of a single gene caused the shift of Y. pestis from causing a primarily gastrointestinal infection to a more serious and often fatal respiratory disease and how later modifications lead to infections associated with the bubonic plague.

Biodegradable, flexible silicon transistors

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

Researchers have come up with a new solution to alleviate the environmental burden of discarded electronics. They have demonstrated the feasibility of making microwave biodegradable thin-film transistors from a transparent, flexible biodegradable substrate made from inexpensive wood, called cellulose nanofibrillated fiber. This work opens the door for green, low-cost, portable electronic devices in future.

Physical study may give boost to hydrogen cars

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

A new study of hydrogen storage material magnesium hydride reveals path to better performance, possibly paving way toward better future fuel tanks.

Using muons from cosmic rays to find fraying infrastructure

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 09:12 AM PDT

Seeking a better way to identify faulty energy infrastructure before it fails, researchers are using subatomic particles called muons to analyze the thickness of concrete slabs and metal pipes. Their technique is a way to safely and non-invasively find worn infrastructure components using background radiation already present in the environment.

Recreational fish-catch data can help save money in monitoring invasive largemouth bass

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:08 AM PDT

Largemouth bass are native to North America, but they have been distributed worldwide for recreational fishing. When they're in waters outside North America, largemouth bass can cause declines in native fish abundance, disrupting the ecosystem. Officials could save $1 million a year in monitoring for invasive fish, experts say, by using tournament fish-catch data.

Researchers repurpose technology to reduce psychological and physical scars of burn injuries

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:08 AM PDT

It's the season for backyard grilling, campfires, fireworks – and burn injuries. Over the next few months, U.S. burn centers will see thousands of severe burns requiring painful skin grafts and lengthy treatment. Researchers are developing new ways to use already approved therapies to help alleviate the anxiety and pain of burn treatments – as well as improve outcomes.

Platelet-like particles boost clotting, slow bleeding

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:08 AM PDT

Tiny gel particles that can perform the same essential functions as platelets have been developed by researchers. The particles could one day be used to control excessive bleeding following traumatic injury or in individuals with impaired clotting due to an inherited condition or as a result of certain medications or chemotherapy.

Pension funds are losing billions annually due to end of month trading

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:07 AM PDT

Pension funds around the world could be losing out on billions of euros and dollars of the stock market gains they would have made because they are obliged to sell part of their portfolios before the end of each month. Researchers found this phenomenon to be widespread across 26 stock markets from 1980 to 2013.

Restored streams take 25 years or longer to recover

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:06 AM PDT

The number of plant species growing just next to restored streams can take up to 25 years to increase above those channelized during the timber floating era, research concludes.

New method of quantum entanglement packs vastly more data in a photon

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:06 AM PDT

Electrical engineers have demonstrated a new way to harness light particles, or photons, that are connected to each other and act in unison no matter how far apart they are -- a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement.

Nation's weather radar network used to track bird migration at night

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:06 AM PDT

Using the nation's weather radar network, two doctoral students have developed a technique for forecasting something other than the weather: the orientation behavior of birds as they migrate through the atmosphere at night. The students have discovered a way to use the latest dual-polarization radar upgrade to measure broad-scale flight orientation of nocturnal migrant birds -- a promising development for biologists and bird enthusiasts.

Exit dinosaurs, enter fishes

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:06 AM PDT

A pair of paleobiologists have determined that the world's most numerous and diverse vertebrates -- ray-finned fishes -- began their ecological dominance of the oceans 66 million years ago, aided by the mass extinction event that killed off dinosaurs.

Longer acquaintance levels the romantic playing field

Posted: 30 Jun 2015 07:06 AM PDT

Partners who become romantically involved soon after meeting tend to be more similar in physical attractiveness than partners who get together after knowing each other for a while, according to new findings.
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