Selasa, 27 Januari 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Ads effective even in the midst of multitasking, studies find

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 02:06 PM PST

Those video ads playing in the corner of your computer screen, in the midst of multitasking, may have more impact than you realize. They may be as effective as ads you're really watching, says one expert. It depends on how you perceive and process media content -- whether your processing 'style' is to focus more on one thing or to take it all in. It also may depend on your mood.

NOAA's DSCOVR going to a 'far out' orbit

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 02:06 PM PST

Many satellites that monitor the Earth orbit relatively close to the planet, while some satellites that monitor the sun orbit our star. DSCOVR will keep an eye on both, with a focus on the sun. To cover both the Earth and sun, it will have an unusual orbit in a place called L1.

Pilotless aircraft will play critical roles in precision agriculture

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 02:05 PM PST

A new article outlines many of the potential roles drones can play in university research, and the advantages they can offer in speed, cost and data collection.

Relationship critical for how cells ingest matter

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:47 PM PST

To survive and fulfill their biological functions, cells need to take in material from their environment. In this process, proteins within the cell pull inward on its membrane, forming a pit that eventually encapsulates the material in a bubble called a vesicle. Researchers have now revealed a relationship that governs this process, known as endocytosis.

Hospitals helping violence victims could save millions

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:46 PM PST

In the first systematic look at the economic outcomes of hospital-based violence intervention, researchers demonstrate that, in addition to transforming victims' lives, these programs may indeed save a significant amount of money compared to non-intervention, in various sectors including health care and criminal justice, up to about $4 million to serve 90 clients in a 5-year period.

Researchers use oxides to flip graphene conductivity

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:46 PM PST

A team of researchers has demonstrated a new way to change the amount of electrons that reside in a given region within a piece of graphene, they have a proof-of-principle in making the fundamental building blocks of semiconductor devices using the 2-D material.

Beating the clock: researchers develop new treatment for rabies

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:46 PM PST

Successfully treating rabies can be a race against the clock. Those who suffer a bite from a rabid animal have a brief window of time to seek medical help before the virus takes root in the central nervous system, at which point the disease is almost invariably fatal. Now, researchers have successfully tested a treatment on mice that cures the disease even after the virus has spread to the brain.

Antiangiogenesis drugs could make major improvement in tuberculosis treatment

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:46 PM PST

Use of the same antiangiogenesis drugs that have improved treatment of some cancers could also help surmount persistent difficulties in treating tuberculosis, improving the effectiveness of drug therapy and reducing the emergence of resistant bacterial strains.

How a cancer-causing virus blocks human immune response

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:46 PM PST

Scientists have revealed how a type of cancer-causing virus outwits the human body's immune response. The discovery might help explain why some cancer therapies that incorporate interferon fail to treat certain cancers and might lead to more effective treatments.

3D enzyme model provides new tool for anti-inflammatory drug development

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:46 PM PST

To better understand PLA2 enzymes and help drive therapeutic drug development, researchers developed 3-D computer models that show exactly how two PLA2 enzymes extract their substrates from cellular membranes.

Chronic insomniacs may face increased risk of hypertension

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:17 PM PST

Insomniacs who take longer than 14 minutes to fall asleep face a greater risk of hypertension, according to new research. This study is the first to test whether insomnia with physiological hyperarousal, defined as a longer time to fall asleep, is linked to hypertension.

New breast cancer risk prediction model more accurate than current model

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:17 PM PST

A new breast cancer risk prediction model combining histologic features of biopsied breast tissue from women with benign breast disease and individual patient demographic information more accurately classified breast cancer risk than the current screening standard.

High cholesterol in 30s, 40s, increases later risk of heart disease

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 01:17 PM PST

Most young adults might assume they have years before needing to worry about their cholesterol. But new findings suggest that even slightly high cholesterol levels in otherwise healthy adults between the ages of 35 and 55 can have long-term impacts on their heart health, with every decade of high cholesterol increasing their chances of heart disease by 39 percent.

Researchers image, measure tubulin transport in cilia

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 12:05 PM PST

The mechanism behind tubulin transport and its assembly into cilia have been observed in a new study, including the first video imagery of the process. "Cilia are found throughout the body, so defects in cilia formation affect cells that line airways, brain ventricles or the reproductive track," said the study's lead author.

Engineering self-assembling amyloid fibers

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 12:05 PM PST

Nature has many examples of self-assembly, and bioengineers are interested in copying these systems to create useful new materials or devices. Amyloid proteins, for example, can self-assemble into the tangled plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease -- but can also form very useful materials, such as spider silk, or biofilms around living cells. Researchers have now come up with methods to manipulate natural proteins so that they self-assemble into amyloid fibrils.

Phase 1 clinical trial of CUDC-101 'throws kitchen sink' at head and neck cancer

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 10:52 AM PST

At 18 months median follow up of a phase 1 clinical trial, one patient's cancer had worsened, two had died, and nine remained free of disease. Testing of blood and tumor samples showed that CUDC-101 had indeed inhibited the action of EGFR, HDAC and Her2.

Students master math through movement using Kinect for Windows

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 10:52 AM PST

Significant gains in the understanding of angles and angle measurements by elementary school students are seen in those who performed body-based tasks while interacting with a Kinect for Windows mathematics program.

Gigantic ring system around J1407b much larger, heavier than Saturn's

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 10:52 AM PST

Astronomers have discovered that the ring system that they see eclipse the very young Sun-like star J1407 is of enormous proportions, much larger and heavier than the ring system of Saturn.

Girls lead boys in academic achievement globally

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:50 AM PST

Considerable attention has been paid to how boys' educational achievements in science and math compare to girls' accomplishments in those areas, often leading to the assumption that boys outperform girls in these areas. Now, using international data, researchers have determined that girls outperform boys in educational achievement in 70 percent of the countries they studied -- regardless of the level of gender, political, economic or social equality.

Collagen: Powerful workout with water

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:50 AM PST

Collagen fibers not only passively support bone, tendons and ligaments, but also actively contract, researchers report. Removing water from collagen fibres has dramatic effects on molecular and nanoscopic feature, the researchers have found.

Good bedtime habits equal better sleep for kids

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:49 AM PST

Children obtain better and more age-appropriate sleep in the presence of household rules and regular sleep-wake routines, according to sleep researchers.

Electronic circuits with reconfigurable pathways closer to reality

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:49 AM PST

Multitasking circuits capable of reconfiguring themselves in real time and switching functions as the need arises -- this is the promising application stemming from a new discovery. Other potential uses: miniaturizing our electronic devices and developing resilient circuits.

Scientists discover a new blood platelet formation mechanism

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:47 AM PST

A new cellular mechanism, called the endocycle, encourages the formation of platelets, the cells needed to coagulate blood. In mouse models, endocycles can help to control thrombocytopenia, a disease caused by a deficit in platelet production that causes heavy haemorrhaging. The new process could act as an alternative source of platelets when the normal mechanisms fail.

Higher dementia risk linked to more use of common drugs

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:47 AM PST

A large study links a significantly increased risk for developing dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, to taking commonly used medications with anticholinergic effects at higher doses or for a longer time. Many older people take these medications, which include nonprescription diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

Possible therapeutic target for common, but mysterious brain blood vessel disorder

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:46 AM PST

Tens of millions of people worldwide have abnormal, leak-prone sproutings of blood vessels in the brain called cerebral cavernous malformations. These abnormal growths can lead to seizures, strokes, and hemorrhages, yet their precise molecular cause has never been determined. Now, cardiovascular scientists have studied this pathway in heart development to discover an important set of molecular signals, triggered by CCM-linked gene defects, that potentially could be targeted to treat the disorder.

Largest-ever autism genome study finds most siblings have different autism-risk genes

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:46 AM PST

The largest-ever autism genome study reveals that the disorder's genetic underpinnings are more complex than previously thought: Most siblings who have autism have different autism-linked genes. The study's data is part of the historic first upload of approximately 1,000 autism genomes to the Autism Speaks MSSNG portal in Google Cloud Platform. The data will be openly available for global research in order to speed understanding of autism and the development of individualized treatments.

New strategy to combat 'undruggable' cancer molecule

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:46 AM PST

Three of the four most fatal cancers are caused by a protein known as Ras; either because it mutates or simply because it ends up in the wrong place at the wrong time. Ras has proven an elusive target for scientist trying to cure the deadly diseases. Now a group of researchers has discovered an unknown way for RAS to find its proper place in the cell. Their discovery may lead to completely novel approaches to curing cancer.

New Canadian guideline to help prevent, manage adult obesity

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:45 AM PST

A new Canadian guideline to help prevent and manage obesity in adult patients recommends body mass index measurement for both prevention and management and structured behavioral changes to help those who are overweight or obese to lose weight. The guideline is aimed at physicians and health care providers.

Nocturnal leg cramps more common in summer

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:45 AM PST

Painful nocturnal leg cramps are about twice as common during summer than in winter, found a new study. Because quinine is commonly prescribed to treat leg cramps, researchers looked at the number of new quinine prescriptions for adults over 50 years of age in British Columbia, Canada, from Dec. 1, 2001 to Oct. 31, 2007. They found that prescriptions for quinine peaked in British Columbia in July as did Google searches for leg cramps.

Geothermal microbial reservoirs: Staircase fractures in microbialites and travertines

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:45 AM PST

Geologists have come up with a new model of the development of fractures showing a stairway trajectory, commonly occurring in finely laminated rock, such microbialites and travertines. These fractures strongly enhance permeability by connecting several highly porous zones enveloped in tight impermeable levels. Understanding and predicting this fracture pattern geometry, distribution, and interconnection is valuable not only for locating water supplies, but also for oil, gas, and geothermal exploration.

Got bees? Got vitamin A? Got malaria? Loss of pollinators increases risk of malnutrition, disease

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:44 AM PST

More than half the people in some developing countries could become newly at risk for malnutrition if crop-pollinating animals -- like bees -- continue to decline, experts say. Despite popular reports that pollinators are crucial for human nutritional health, no scientific studies have actually tested this claim -- until now.

Lung cancer: Study finds potential new drug target

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:44 AM PST

Targeting a key enzyme and its associated metabolic programming may lead to novel drug development to treat lung cancer, researchers report. Cancer cells undergo metabolic alterations to meet the increased energy demands that support their excess growth and survival. The Krebs cycle in the mitochondria of cells is used to supply both energy and building materials for cell growth. Two mitochondrial enzymes -- pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase replenish carbon to the Krebs cycle.

Metabolic mystery solved, lending insight into Lafora disease

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 09:44 AM PST

The metabolic function of the essential enzyme laforin has been identified by researchers, which opens new pathways to treating the deadly Lafora's disease. Lafora disease occurs as a result of the laforin gene being mutated. Mutations in the gene encoding the laforin protein result in the accumulation aberrant glycogen-like accumulations called Lafora bodies that resemble plant starch more than human glycogen.

Dental experts show why wound healing is impaired in diabetics

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

A critical molecule has been identified by a team of dental scientists that helps explain why diabetics suffer from impaired healing. Their results pinpoint a target for therapies that could help boost healing.

Is head CT overused in emergency departments?

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Most patients presenting to the emergency department with syncope or dizziness may not benefit from head CT unless they are older, have a focal neurologic deficit, or have a history of recent head trauma.

Brain study sheds light on how children with autism process social play

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Brain scans confirm significant differences in play behavior, brain activation patterns and stress levels in children with autism spectrum disorder as compared with typically developing children, new research demonstrates.

Majority of homeless adults with mental illness have high rates of cognitive deficits

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Nearly three-quarters of homeless adults with mental illness in Canada show evidence of cognitive deficits, such as difficulties with problem solving, learning and memory, new research has found. The study-believed to be the largest of its kind -assessed neurocognitive functioning indicators such as mental processing speed, verbal learning and memory in 1,500 homeless adults in five Canadian cities.

Cochlear implant users can hear, feel the beat in music

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

People who use cochlear implants for profound hearing loss do respond to certain aspects of music, contrary to common beliefs and limited scientific research, says a research team. The scientists say exposure to the beat in music, such as drums, can improve the emotional and social quality-of-life of cochlear implant users and may even help improve their understanding and use of spoken language.

Partly wrong with a chance of being right: Weather forecast

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:23 AM PST

The inaccuracy of weather forecasts has personal implications for people around the world. New research from Tel Aviv University prioritizes, for the first time, the reasons for forecasting failures across different regions of the planet, quantifying the causes -- man-made and natural -- for weather prediction inaccuracies.

Researchers identify materials to improve biofuel, petroleum processing

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:23 AM PST

Using one of the largest supercomputers in the world, a team of researchers has identified potential materials that could improve the production of ethanol and petroleum products. The discovery could lead to major efficiencies and cost savings in these industries.

Swarm of microprobes to head for Jupiter

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:23 AM PST

A swarm of tiny probes each with a different sensor could be fired into the clouds of Jupiter and grab data as they fall before burning up in the gas giant planet's atmosphere. The probes would last an estimated 15 minutes according to planetary scientists. Transmitting 20 megabits of data over 15 minutes would be sufficient to allows scientists to get a picture of a large part of the atmosphere of the planet.

Climate models disagree on why temperature 'wiggles' occur

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:23 AM PST

Most climate models likely underestimate the degree of decade-to-decade variability occurring in mean surface temperatures as Earth's atmosphere warms. They also provide inconsistent explanations of why these wiggles occur in the first place, a new study finds. These inconsistencies may undermine the models' reliability for projecting the short-term pace and extent of future warming, and indicate that we shouldn't over-interpret recent temperature trends. The study analyzed 34 models used in the most recent IPCC assessment report.

Would you tell your manager you had a mental health problem?

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:23 AM PST

Although nearly four in 10 workers wouldn't tell their manager if they had a mental health problem, half said that if they knew about a coworker's illness, they would desire to help, a new survey shows. The survey reveals that workers have both negative and supportive attitudes about mental health in the workplace.

Meteosat-7 becomes EUMETSAT's longest-serving operational satellite

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:22 AM PST

On 24 January 2015, Meteosat-7 becomes the longest-serving operational satellite in EUMETSAT history, clocking up 17 years of monitoring the weather from space.

How tropical parasite hijacks cells

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:22 AM PST

Scientists have pinned down how a dangerous tropical parasite which is transmitted by ticks manages to turn healthy cells into cancer-like invasive cells, according to research. Microscopic Theileria parasites infect the blood of mammals, particularly cattle, causing serious illness.

In infants, pain from vaccinations shows up in brain activity

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:21 AM PST

Infants show distinct, consistent patterns of brain activity in response to painful vaccinations, new research shows.

New mechanism to aid cells under stress identified

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:21 AM PST

New details in a cellular mechanism that serves as a defense against stress have been identified by a team of biologists. The findings potentially offer insights into tumor progression and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's -- the cell's inability to respond to stress is a major cause of these diseases.

Nanoshuttle wear and tear: It’s the mileage, not the age

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:20 AM PST

As nanomachine design advances, researchers are moving from wondering if the nanomachine works to how long it will work -- an important question as there are so many potential applications, e.g., for medical uses including drug delivery and early diagnosis. Scientists observed a molecular shuttle powered by kinesin motor proteins and found it to degrade when operating, marking the first time degradation has been studied in detail in an active, autonomous nanomachine.

Brain circuit that regulates thirst identified

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 08:20 AM PST

Scientists have identified a circuit in the brains of mice that regulates thirst. When a subset of cells in the circuit is switched on, mice immediately begin drinking water, even if they are fully hydrated. A second set of cells suppresses the urge to drink.

Hilltop panorama marks Mars rover's 11th anniversary

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 07:53 AM PST

A panorama from one of the highest elevations that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has reached in its 11 years on Mars includes the U.S. flag at the summit.

Helicopter could be 'scout' for Mars rovers

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 07:51 AM PST

Getting around on Mars is tricky business. Each NASA rover has delivered a wealth of information about the history and composition of the Red Planet, but a rover's vision is limited by the view of onboard cameras, and images from spacecraft orbiting Mars are the only other clues to where to drive it. To have a better sense of where to go and what's worth studying on Mars, it could be useful to have a low-flying scout.

Researchers make magnetic graphene

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

Graphene has many desirable properties. Magnetism alas is not one of them. Magnetism can be induced in graphene by doping it with magnetic impurities, but this tends to disrupt graphene's electronic properties. Now physicists have found a way to induce magnetism in graphene while also preserving graphene's electronic properties. They have accomplished this by bringing a graphene sheet very close to a magnetic insulator -- an electrical insulator with magnetic properties.

Cause for decline of Missouri River pallid sturgeon identified

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

Oxygen-depleted dead zones between dams in the upper Missouri River have been directly linked with the failure of endangered pallid sturgeon embryos to survive, according to a study. The study is the first to make a direct link among dam-induced changes in riverine sediment transport, the subsequent effects of those changes on reduced oxygen levels and the survival of an endangered species, the pallid sturgeon.

Frogs prove ideal models for studying developmental timing

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

Thyroid hormone receptor alpha plays an important role in hind limb development in frogs, scientists have found. With new gene mutation technology, researchers were able to successfully mutate the gene in the tadpole models, discovering the value of tadpoles as ideal models for studying the role of hormones in development because of the timely metamorphosis from tadpole to juvenile frog, and because that transition is completely dependent on hormones.

Visualizing interacting electrons in a molecule

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

Scientists have succeeded in directly imaging how electrons interact within a single molecule. Understanding this kind of electronic effects in organic molecules is crucial for their use in optoelectronic applications, for example in organic light-emitting diodes, organic field-effect transistors and solar cells.

Chemists find a way to unboil egg whites: Ability to quickly restore molecular proteins could slash biotechnology costs

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

Chemists have figured out how to unboil egg whites -- an innovation that could dramatically reduce costs for cancer treatments, food production and other segments of the $160 billion global biotechnology industry, according to new findings.

Mindfulness-based program in schools making a positive impact, study shows

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

A social and emotional learning program started by Academy Award winning actress Goldie Hawn to help school children improve their learning abilities, be more caring, and less stressed is now backed by new scientific evidence.

Towards a scientific process freed from systemic bias

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:59 AM PST

Research on how science works -- the science of science -- can benefit from studying the digital traces generated during the research process, such as peer-reviewed publications. This type of research is crucial for the future of science and that of scientists, according to experts.

Mother's stress hormone levels may affect fetal growth and long term health of child

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:57 AM PST

Increased levels of stress hormones can lead pregnant mice to overeat, but affect growth of the fetus and, potentially, the long term health of the offspring, according to a new study.

How cancer turns good cells to the dark side

Posted: 26 Jan 2015 06:57 AM PST

Biophysicists reveal how cancer uses notch-signaling pathways to promote metastasis. Their computer models provide a fresh theoretical framework for scientists who study ways to target cancer progression.
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