Kamis, 26 Februari 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Study maps extroversion types in the brain's anatomy

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:01 PM PST

Scientists have mapped the similarities and the differences in the brain between the two different kinds of extroverts: 'Agentic' go-getters and 'affiliative' people persons.

Million person study examines long-term effects of blocking inflammation

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:00 PM PST

Inflammation -- the body's response to damaging stimuli -- may have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease, according to a new study. The finding is one of the outcomes of research using a powerful new genetic tool that mimics the behaviour of certain anti-inflammatory drugs.

Developers help fund transit through value capture plans

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 05:58 PM PST

Transit improvements increase property values, and cities increasingly are asking real estate developers to help fund transit facilities that will benefit their projects, according to a new report.

Sleeping over 8 hours a day associated with greater risk of stroke

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 01:40 PM PST

People who sleep for more than eight hours a day have an increased risk of stroke, according to a study -- and this risk doubles for older people who persistently sleep longer than average. However, the researchers say it is unclear why this association exists and call for further research to explore the link.

Helmet add-ons may not lower concussion risk in athletes

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 01:39 PM PST

Football helmet add-ons such as outer soft-shell layers, spray treatments, helmet pads and fiber sheets may not significantly help lower the risk of concussions in athletes, according to a new study.

Felling of tropical trees has soared, satellite shows, not slowed as UN study found

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 12:18 PM PST

The rate at which tropical forests were cut, burned or otherwise lost from the 1990s through the 2000s accelerated by 62 percent, according to a new study which dramatically reverses a previous estimate of a 25 percent slowdown over the same period.

Hidden gene gives hope for improving brain function

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 12:18 PM PST

The mechanism a novel gene uses to affect brain function and elicit behavior related to neuropsychiatric disease has been identified by an international team of researchers. They discovered that a gene called Gomafu might be key to understanding how our brain rapidly responds to stressful experiences.

New compound may lead to development of cheaper anti-cancer drugs

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 12:18 PM PST

A new compound developed at the University of Toronto Scarborough could play an important role in developing cheaper anti-cancer drugs.

How the 'mute' cicada sings

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 12:17 PM PST

'Mute' cicadas may use the sound of wing impact to communicate. Most male cicadas use specialized physical mechanisms, like the tymbal and/or the stridulatory organs, to produce loud and diverse sounds for communication. "Mute" cicadas from the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, but the name is somewhat misleading, as they are still able to produce sounds.

Antifreeze protein from ticks fights frostbite in mice

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 12:17 PM PST

A protein that protects ticks from freezing temperatures also prevents frostbite when introduced in mice, a new study has found. The research is the first to demonstrate the protein's ability to boost frostbite resistance in an adult mammal.

The body's Transformers: Some proteins alter configuation

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:25 AM PST

Like the shape-shifting robots of 'Transformers' fame, a unique class of proteins in the human body also has the ability to alter their configuration, scientists have discovered.

Plant chemicals may prevent liver damage caused by fat accumulated during menopause

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:25 AM PST

Women going through menopause often struggle with weight gain that results when their estrogen levels drop, and many turn to weight-loss supplements. But those supplements may cause an accumulation of fat in the liver and a potentially life-threatening condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Now researchers have shown in studies of post-menopausal animals that a mix of phytochemicals, along with vitamin D, may help protect the liver against inflammation caused by fat accumulation.

Molecular feedback loop gives clues to how flowers drop their petals

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:24 AM PST

As Valentine's Day fades into the past, you may be noticing a surfeit of petals accumulate around your vase of flowers. A study sheds new light on the process that governs how and when plants shed their petals, a process known as abscission.

Vaccine hesitancy: Journal collection investigates vaccination decision-making

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:24 AM PST

Vaccines are thought to be one of the most successful public health measures, but some individuals are hesitant to vaccinate their families for a variety of reasons. Researchers explore individuals' confidence or reluctance to vaccinate their families and the associated effects on global health.

Simple way to make and reconfigure complex emulsions

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:24 AM PST

Researchers have devised a new way to make complex liquid mixtures, known as emulsions, that could have many applications in drug delivery, sensing, cleaning up pollutants, and performing chemical reactions.

Monster black hole discovered at cosmic dawn

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:24 AM PST

The discovery of the brightest quasar in the early universe, powered by the most massive black hole yet known at that time presents a puzzle to researchers: How could something so massive and luminous form so early in the universe, only 900 million years after the Big Bang?

How the landscape of the pancreatic cancer genome is coming into view

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:24 AM PST

Scientists have done the most in-depth analysis yet of 100 pancreatic cancer genomes and highlighted 4 subtypes that may help guide future patient treatment.

Epigenetic 'switch' regulates RNA-protein interactions

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:24 AM PST

Epigenetic modifications to mRNA act as a structural 'switch' that allows RNA-binding proteins to recognize and read mRNA regions that would otherwise be inaccessible, a new study has found. The findings provide a new understanding of this emerging field of study.

Consideration of costs can reduce moral objections to human organ sales and other 'repugnant' transactions, says researcher

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:23 AM PST

People might abandon their moral objections to organ selling – and to other transactions in repugnant markets -- when presented with information about the potential advantages of such sales, authors write. "Some people's ideas of what's moral and acceptable may be changed by evidence, once the costs associated with these moral positions are taken into account," says one writer. "People may find the sale of organs less offensive after they have considered data about factors such as waiting lists, those who die while waiting for a transplant, and the savings in long-term medical care that can result from transplants."

Link between inflammation, tissue regeneration and wound repair response

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:23 AM PST

New links between inflammation and regeneration have been found by scientists, including new information on signaling pathways that are activated by a receptor protein called gp130.

Unusual disease that causes acute confusion may be underdiagnosed

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 11:23 AM PST

An unusual disease called Susac syndrome, which can cause acute confusion and problems with hearing and eyesight, is rare but probably under reported, physicians report.

Clusters of aluminum metal atoms become superconductive at surprisingly high temperatures

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 10:22 AM PST

Clusters of atoms known as 'superatoms' represent an entirely new family of superconductors -- one that appears to work at temperatures well above standard superconductors.

Physicists offer a solution to the puzzle of the origin of matter in the universe

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 10:22 AM PST

Most of the laws of nature treat particles and antiparticles equally, but stars and planets are made of particles, or matter, and not antiparticles, or antimatter. That asymmetry, which favors matter to a very small degree, has puzzled scientists for many years. Physicists offer a possible solution to the mystery of the origin of matter in the universe.

Quick antibiotics reduce PICU needs and mortality of pediatric cancer patients

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 10:21 AM PST

A new study shows that pediatric cancer patients who receive antibiotics within 60 minutes of reporting fever and showing neutropenia (low neutrophil count), go on to have decreased intensive care needs and lower mortality compared with patients who receive antibiotics outside the 60-minute window.

Bending a highly energetic electron beam with crystal

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 10:21 AM PST

Scientists have demonstrated that a bent silicon crystal can bend the paths of focused, very energetic electron beams much more than magnets used today. The method could be of interest for particle accelerator applications such as next-generation X-ray lasers that will help scientists unravel atomic structures and motions in unprecedented detail.

Widely used food additives promotes colitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome, shows study of emulsifiers

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 10:21 AM PST

Emulsifiers, which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter the gut microbiota composition and localization to induce intestinal inflammation that promotes the development of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome, new research shows.

First direct observation of carbon dioxide's increasing greenhouse effect at Earth's surface

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 10:21 AM PST

Scientists have observed an increase in carbon dioxide's greenhouse effect at Earth's surface for the first time. They measured atmospheric carbon dioxide's increasing capacity to absorb thermal radiation emitted from Earth's surface over an 11-year period at two locations in North America. They attributed this upward trend to rising carbon dioxide levels from fossil fuel emissions.

New flow battery to keep big cities lit, green and safe

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 09:27 AM PST

The new zinc-polyiodide redox flow battery uses an electrolyte that has more than two times the energy density of the next-best flow battery used to store renewable energy and support the power grid. It's high energy density, and resulting lower cost, make it ideal for large cities where space is at a premium.

New technology could make treatment of oil and gas wastewater simpler, cheaper

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 09:27 AM PST

Oil and gas operations in the United States produce about 21 billion barrels of wastewater per year. The saltiness of the water and the organic contaminants it contains have traditionally made treatment difficult and expensive.

The £180 billion bill for living in a material world: Material lifestyles not making us happier

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 09:27 AM PST

Our modern material lifestyles are failing to make us happier, damaging our health, are no longer sustainable and cost the overall economy tens of billions of pounds every year.

Parkinson's disease patients have reduced visual contrast acuity

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 09:27 AM PST

An iPad® application has been developed that can help physicians screen for Parkinson's Disease, report researchers. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have difficulties with visual acuity in low-contrast images. Because they may have normal high-contrast vision, this is often overlooked during routine eye exams, but this new app can help to identify the problem.

Possible biological trigger for canine bone cancer found

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 09:26 AM PST

The biological mechanism that may give some cancer cells the ability to form tumors in dogs has been identified by researchers. The recent study uncovered an association between the increased expression of a particular gene in tumor cells and more aggressive behavior in a form of canine bone cancer. It may also have implications for human cancers by detailing a new pathway for tumor formation.

Breakfast habits affect teens' metabolic responses to protein-packed morning meals

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:44 AM PST

A researcher compared young women who habitually skip breakfast to those who routinely eat breakfast and found that their metabolic responses to eating a high-protein breakfast were different. Specifically, the habitual breakfast skippers experienced poorer glucose control throughout the day when they consumed a high-protein breakfast, whereas those who typically ate a high-carbohydrate breakfast had improved glucose control after they ate a high-protein breakfast.

Cellular communication offers easy fog detection for roads and runways

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:44 AM PST

Thick fogbanks can blanket open roads and runways and dramatically reduce visibility -- often causing devastating accidents. A new study suggests that a practical solution to fog detection can be found in cellular communication networks already in place all over the world.

Biology teachers: Understanding faith, teaching evolution not mutually exclusive

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:44 AM PST

Discussing the relationship between science and faith, rather than avoiding the discussion, may better prepare future high school biology teachers for anticipating questions about evolution, according to political scientists.

Learning by eye: Silicon micro-funnels increase the efficiency of solar cells

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:44 AM PST

A biological structure in mammalian eyes has inspired scientists to design an inorganic counterpart for use in solar cells: micron-sized vertical funnels were etched shoulder-to-shoulder in a silicon substrate. Using mathematical models and experiments, they tested how these kind of funnel arrays collect incident light and conduct it to the active layer of a silicon solar cell. Their result: this arrangement of funnels increases photo absorption by about 65 percent in a thin-film solar cell.

Could an HIV drug beat strep throat, flesh-eating bacteria?

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:43 AM PST

With antibiotic resistance on the rise, scientists are looking for innovative ways to combat bacterial infections. The pathogen that causes conditions from strep throat to flesh-eating disease is among them, but scientists have now found a tool that could help them fight it: a drug approved to treat HIV. Their work could someday lead to new treatments.

Electric-car driving range and emissions depend on where you live

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:43 AM PST

Many car buyers weighing whether they should go all electric to help the planet have at least one new factor to consider before making the switch: geography. Based on a study of a commercially available electric car, scientists report that emissions and driving range can vary greatly depending on regional energy sources and climate.

Molecular mouse-trap technique sheds light on key cell processes

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:43 AM PST

Scientists have shed new light on the fundamental biological process of cell division, thanks to an emerging analytical method.

Oat breakfast cereals may contain a common mold-related toxin

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:43 AM PST

Oats are often touted for boosting heart health, but scientists warn that the grain and its products might need closer monitoring for potential mold contamination. They report that some oat-based breakfast cereals in the US contain a mold-related toxin called ochratoxin A that's been linked to kidney cancer in animal studies.

Magnetic nanoparticles enhance performance of solar cells

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:43 AM PST

Magnetic nanoparticles can increase the performance of solar cells made from polymers -- provided the mix is right. Adding about one per cent of such nanoparticles by weight makes the solar cells more efficient, according to new findings.

Postoperative mortality rates low among patients with HIV prescribed ART

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:43 AM PST

Postoperative mortality rates were low among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus who are receiving antiretroviral therapy, and those mortality rates were influenced as much by age and poor nutritional status as CD4 cell counts, according to a report.

When it comes to the digital playground we need to stop crying wolf

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:42 AM PST

Kids are leading the transition to digital media today. But, while too much time online could cause developmental problems, media consumption habits may not be making our children less bright or sociable, after all.

Cherenkov Effect improves radiation therapy for patients with cancer

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:41 AM PST

The complex parts of the blue light known as the Cherenkov Effect can be measured and used in dosimetry to make therapies safer and more effective, scientists report.

Heart surgery outcomes for pediatric and congenital patients now online

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:40 AM PST

Continuing its commitment to increase public awareness and understanding of cardiothoracic surgical outcomes, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons has released the first publicly accessible national report of surgical outcomes from its Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD).

Study linking suicidal behavior, psychotic experiences may yield strategies to help prevent suicide attempts

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 08:40 AM PST

Suicidal ideation and psychotic experiences have been studied among more than 11,000 adults 18 and older. The data were drawn from a large general-population based sample of U. S. households. Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death, especially among individuals with psychotic disorders, and may also be common among nonclinical populations of adults whose psychotic experiences cause less impairment. Psychotic experiences resemble the hallucinations and delusions of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia but are of lower persistence and intensity.

What does the future hold for treating patients with locally advanced breast cancer?

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 07:30 AM PST

Treating patients with locally advanced inoperable breast cancer is an extremely difficult task. The overwhelming majority of patients treated for this disease suffer relapse and, despite the best multimodal treatment, do not survive. There is a medical need to examine current and potential treatments, researchers say in a new article.

International marketing: Are store brands becoming a global phenomenon?

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 07:30 AM PST

Big name brands in the United States and Western Europe face a serious and growing threat from successful store brands. A new study explains why store brands have taken some countries by storm while leaving other countries relatively untouched.

More than two hours of TV a day increases high blood pressure risk in children by 30%

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 07:28 AM PST

A study on European children concludes that spending more than two hours a day in front of a screen increases the probability of high blood pressure by 30%. The article also points out that doing no daily physical activity or doing less than an hour a day increases this risk by 50%.

Stark inequalities in aging as UK government encourages people to work longer

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 07:28 AM PST

Changes in pension and employment policies are making it increasingly necessary for older people in the UK to work beyond the age of 65.  However, new research fnds significant differences in the likelihood of employment and income levels of people beyond 65, depending on their gender and health. 

Destroying tumor material that 'cloaks' cancer cells could benefit patients

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:44 AM PST

Like a stealth jet cloaks itself from radar, cancer cells cloak themselves within tumors by hiding behind a dense layer of cellular material known as stroma. According to a new study, drugs that target and strip away the stroma would pave the way for drugs to reach the cancerous cells within the tumor, which could have a beneficial effect on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients.

Women twice as likely to see pot as risky

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:44 AM PST

A study on the perceived risk of using cannabis and characteristics associated with these perceptions found that non-white, low-income women over 50 were most likely to perceive a risk in using the drug. Least likely were those 12 to 25, with a high school diploma or more, and family income above $75,000. The study is the first to describe changes across time in perceived risk of regular cannabis use among those 12 years and older.

Consumer behavior and free trials: What makes a customer stay?

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

Free trials are wildly popular, but customers attracted with these promotions behave very differently from standard customers, according to a new study.

Blockbusters: Can EEGs predict a movie's success better than surveys?

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

Seventy-five percent of movies earn a net loss during their run in theaters. A new study finds that brain activity visible through EEG measures may be a much cheaper and more accurate way to predict the commercial success of movies.

Predicting consumer preferences? Do NOT walk a mile in their shoes

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

Salespeople have long believed that by imagining themselves as the customer, they can steer clear of their own personal preferences and make decisions that will appeal to consumers in general. According to a new study, the reality is exactly the opposite.

Is your busy schedule affecting your health? Time might not be the problem

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

The modern schedule is infamously frantic, leaving many of us feeling constantly pressed for time. But that feeling may not have much to do with time itself, according to a new study. "Feeling pressed for time impacts how consumers spend time, and how much they are willing to pay to save it. From a consumer standpoint, feeling pressed for time can have many harmful consequences such as poorer health, trouble sleeping, and depression. By pausing to breathe or envision the source of stress in a more positive light, people can enjoy the time they actually have in a healthier and happier way," conclude the authors.

Fundraising 101: Tempting alternatives increase willingness to donate

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

Charities are always trying to understand what type of appeal will increase the likelihood of donations. According to a new study in the Journal of Marketing Research, people are also very driven by seeing the good in themselves. Referencing particularly indulgent products -- not a simple cup of coffee -- can significantly increase charitable donations.

In quest for better lithium-air batteries, chemists boost carbon's stability

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

Chemists report nano-coatings increased the stability of a unique form of carbon, yielding performance gains focused on next generation lithium-air batteries.

Workplace negativity can hurt productivity

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:43 AM PST

Employees who point out problems in the office may help the company improve, but could be hurting themselves in the process. Such negative-minded workers are more likely to become mentally fatigued and defensive and experience a drop-off in production, according to a first-of-its-kind study.

Researchers enable solar cells to use more sunlight

Posted: 25 Feb 2015 06:41 AM PST

Scientists report progress in photovoltaic research: they have improved a component that will enable solar cells to use more energy of the sun and thus create a higher current.
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