Selasa, 31 Mei 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Running may be better than cycling for long-term bone health

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:01 PM PDT

Exercise that puts greater strain on bones, like running, may improve long-term bone health more effectively than non weight-bearing activities like cycling, conclude the authors of a new study measuring the hormones of mountain ultra-marathon runners.

Exposure to chemicals in plastic and fungicides may irreversibly weaken children’s teeth

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:01 PM PDT

Chemicals commonly found in plastics and fungicides may be weakening children's teeth by disrupting hormones that stimulate the growth of dental enamel, according to a new study.

Hormone treatment in transgender persons could shed light on role of sex hormones in bone density

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:01 PM PDT

Male-to-female (MtF) transgender persons have a greater increase in bone mineral density than female-to-male (FtM) persons in their first year of hormone treatment. The research helps scientists further understand the roles sex hormones play on bone development and maintenance in both sexes.

One third of children have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors due to family history

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:01 PM PDT

Children with a strong family history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes were found to have cholesterol levels significantly higher than children with no family history of those conditions, new research shows.

Identification of the action mechanism of a protein impacting neural circuit development

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:33 PM PDT

New research uncovers the action mechanism of an enzyme called DHHC9 in normal development and function of neural networks in the brain. Mutations in DHHC9 have been identified in patients suffering from X-linked Intellectual Disability. The work shows DHHC9 plays a vital role in promoting the growth and branching of neurons and in maintaining the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals being formed onto neurons.

Heme, a poisonous nutrient, tracked by 'Green Lantern' sensor

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:33 PM PDT

The toxin heme is essential to life, but cells must make use of it sparingly and carefully, as poor heme management can lead to Alzheimer's, heart disease and cancer. Researchers tailored ratiometric sensors to tracks heme's movements in yeast cells for the first known time.

Dancing hairs alert bees to floral electric fields

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:33 PM PDT

Tiny, vibrating hairs may explain how bumblebees sense and interpret the signals transmitted by flowers, according to a study by researchers at the University of Bristol.

'Dirty Blizzard' sent 2010 Gulf oil spill pollution to seafloor

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Scientists working in the Gulf of Mexico have found that contaminants from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill lingered in the subsurface water for months after oil on the surface had been swept up or dispersed. In a new study, they detailed how remnants of the oil, black carbon from burning oil slicks and contaminants from drilling mud combined with microscopic algae and other marine debris to descend in a 'dirty blizzard' to the seafloor.

Increased marrying, and mating, by education level not affecting genetic make-up

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:32 PM PDT

While the latter half of the 20th century showed a widening gap between the more and less educated with respect to marriage and fertility, this trend has not significantly altered the genetic makeup of subsequent generations, a team of researchers has found.

Remains of rice and mung beans help solve a Madagascan mystery

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Researchers have helped discover why the inhabitants of Madagascar speak Malagasy, a language otherwise unique to Southeast Asia and the Pacific -- a region located at least 6,000 km away. An international research team has identified that ancient crop remains excavated from sites in Madagascar are of Asian species.

Narcotic painkillers prolong pain in rats, says study

Posted: 30 May 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Painkillers paradoxically prolong pain in rats, a study that could have far-reaching effects for humans, new research demonstrates. Roughly 20,000 Americans died in 2015 from overdoses of prescription opioid pain relievers, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Impact of minimum wage on child health varies

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:55 AM PDT

Raising the minimum wage in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) does not necessarily lead to better health for young children, according to a new study.

Fish courtship pheromone uses the brain's smell pathway

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:55 AM PDT

Research has revealed that a molecule involved in fish reproduction activates the brain via the nose. The pheromone is released by female zebrafish and sensed by smell receptors in the noses of the males. The neural pathway and brain areas involved in transforming this molecular messenger into courtship behavior in fish were also identified by the researchers.

Deep, old water explains why Antarctic Ocean hasn't warmed

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:55 AM PDT

The water around Antarctica has not seen the atmosphere for centuries, since long before the machine age. New observations and model simulations suggest this may be the last place on Earth to feel climate change.

Effects of maternal smoking continue long after birth

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:55 AM PDT

Early exposure to nicotine can trigger widespread genetic changes that affect formation of connections between brain cells long after birth, a new study has found. The finding helps explains why maternal smoking has been linked to behavioral changes such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, addiction and conduct disorder.

Research explains the role of the gene BRCA1 in DNA repair

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:55 AM PDT

Scientists are a step closer to understanding the role of the gene BRCA1, a new report suggests. Changes in this gene are associated with a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

Scientists identify new drivers of rare cancer type

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:06 AM PDT

Cancer researchers have identified new genetic drivers of adrenal cancer by performing a comprehensive genomic analysis as part of the "Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network."

The brain clock that keeps memories ticking

Posted: 30 May 2016 08:06 AM PDT

Just as members of an orchestra need a conductor to stay on tempo, neurons in the brain need well-timed waves of activity to organize memories across time. In the hippocampus--the brain's memory center--temporal ordering of the neural code is important for building a mental map of where you've been, where you are, and where you are going. New research has pinpointed how the neurons that represent space in mice stay in time.

Saving north america's salamanders, newts

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:13 AM PDT

The fate of the world's richest biodiversity of salamanders and newts is in the hands of pet owners across North America, warns a researcher, due to the threat of salamander chytrid disease that infects both salamanders and newts with near total lethality.

Hydrogen synthesis: When enzymes assemble themselves in the test tube

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:13 AM PDT

Researchers have engineered a hydrogen-producing enzyme in the test tube that works as efficiently as the original. The protein – a so-called hydrogenase from green algae – is made up of a protein scaffold and a cofactor. The latter is the reaction center where the substances that react with each other dock. When the researchers added various chemically synthesized substances to the protein scaffold, the cofactor spontaneously assembled.

International law allows for the legalization of cannabis

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:13 AM PDT

The regulated cultivation and trade of cannabis for recreational use is permissible on the basis of states' positive human rights obligations. Pleas for the regulated cultivation and trade of recreational cannabis are often based on arguments related to individual and public health, the safety of citizens and the fight against crime: the so-called positive human rights obligations. To date, however, no study has been carried out to find out what the legal implications of legalizing cannabis would be.

Smell tests, biomarkers and colon biopsies: New approaches to early identification of Parkinson’s disease

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:13 AM PDT

Early diagnosis and starting treatment as early as possible are decisive factors in achieving improved quality of life for Parkinson's sufferers.

Europe needs to be prepared for Zika virus epidemic, experts say

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

The Zika epidemic has long assumed global proportions, experts say. Europe needs to get prepared to deal with the relentless spread of the health threat, in particular with a view to "imported" infection.

New therapy options bring about changes in stroke care

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

There are more well-founded therapy options for the treatment of strokes than ever before. Care has to be reorganized before these innovations are actually used on patients. Experts are discussing just how to do that successfully – from guidelines for the use of thrombectomy procedures all the way to the structure and expansion of stroke care units. Oftentimes, it is precisely the small organizational changes that make the big difference.

Do female birds mate with multiple males to protect their young?

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

Blue tit females mate with more than one male. Several possible blue tit fathers may then work together to stop predators from attacking their young, according to new research.

Decentralized production of hydrogen peroxide: Using surplus renewable power

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

Wood-colored pulp from which white paper is to be produced, objectionable tooth discolorations or disinfecting work areas in hospitals and food production facilities: Due to its highly oxidizing and cell toxic effects hydrogen peroxide is widely used as a bleaching agent and disinfectant in many technical areas, the production of cosmetics and medical applications. Hydrogen peroxide has also become firmly established in oxidative water treatment. Here, under the influence of ultraviolet light, hydrogen peroxide forms hydroxyl radicals: these destroy organic molecules that are not easily biodegradable.

Bombs and buses 600 metres deep

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

May 8, 1945: German forces in Norway have surrendered, and after five long years of occupation, the country is finally free. Suddenly, 30,000 Allied troops had to disarm 350,000 German soldiers, and deal with huge stockpiles of German bombs, guns and ammunition along Norway's 2500-km-long coast. It was a nightmare assignment, especially the bombs. So the Norwegians did what they often did in times of crisis: they turned to the sea.

Intensive aquatic resistance training promotes cartilage health, quality in knee osteoarthritis

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

Postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis, who may avoid strenuous exercise due to pain, can safely promote cartilage health and improve aerobic fitness with intensive aquatic resistance training.

Hydropower dams worldwide cause continued species extinction

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:11 AM PDT

New research has found a global pattern of sustained species extinctions on islands within hydroelectric reservoirs. Scientists have discovered that reservoir islands created by large dams across the world do not maintain the same levels of animal and plant life found prior to flooding.

Mouse study links heart regeneration to telomere length

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:08 AM PDT

The ends of heart muscle cell chromosomes rapidly erode after birth, limiting the cells' ability to proliferate and replace damaged heart tissue, research has found. The study suggests potential new interventions to boost the heart's capacity to repair itself after a heart attack.

A combined approach to treating metastatic melanoma

Posted: 30 May 2016 07:08 AM PDT

Oncologists have successfully treated a patient with metastatic melanoma by combining two different types of immunotherapy.

Identifying how merkel cell polyomavirus infection can cause a lethal carcinoma

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:32 AM PDT

A benign virus normally found in the skin can lead to a type of rare, lethal skin cancer. Specifically, infection by the Merkel cell polyomavirus can lead to Merkel cell carcinoma in immune-compromised individuals. Researchers have now identified a type of skin cell as the target of the virus in humans and establishes a new way to investigate this type of oncogenic viral infection and identifies a potential therapeutic agent against this infection.

Weed stems ripe for biofuel

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:32 AM PDT

A weedy plant found on the roadside in northern Australia has stems ripe for biofuel production. Scientists have discovered that a variety of sorghum growing wild in Australia, Arun, has the potential to yield over 10,000 litres of bioethanol per hectare per year.

Premature babies may grow up to have weaker bones

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:21 AM PDT

Low birth weight babies are at higher risk of osteoporosis later in life, especially if they are born prematurely, say researchers. Targeting these children with the appropriate diet and weight-bearing exercise can help improve the problem.

Quiet please in the intensive care unit

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:21 AM PDT

A new study shows that noise levels in the Intensive Care Unit can go well above recommended levels, disturbing both patients and the medical teams that care for them.

Study shows patients require less painkilling medication after breast-cancer surgery if they have opiate-free anesthesia

Posted: 30 May 2016 04:21 AM PDT

New research shows that patients undergoing breast cancer surgery need less painkilling medication post-surgery if they have anesthesia that is free of opioid drugs.

Organism responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning may affect fisheries

Posted: 27 May 2016 04:05 PM PDT

Ingestion of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense changes the energy balance and reproductive potential of Calanus finmarchicus in the North Atlantic, which is key food source for young fishes, including many commercially important species, say scientists.

Simple attraction: Researchers control protein release from nanoparticles without encapsulation

Posted: 27 May 2016 04:04 PM PDT

A research team has designed a simpler way to keep therapeutic proteins where they are needed for long periods of time. The discovery is a potential game-changer for the treatment of chronic illnesses or injuries that often require multiple injections or daily pills.
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