Minggu, 27 Juli 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

New brain pathways for understanding type 2 diabetes and obesity uncovered

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 01:35 PM PDT

Researchers have identified neural pathways that increase understanding of how the brain regulates body weight, energy expenditure, and blood glucose levels – a discovery that can lead to new therapies for treating Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Slow walking speed, memory complaints can predict dementia

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 11:44 AM PDT

A study involving nearly 27,000 older adults on five continents found that nearly 1 in 10 met criteria for pre-dementia based on a simple test that measures how fast people walk and whether they have cognitive complaints. People who tested positive for pre-dementia were twice as likely as others to develop dementia within 12 years.

Anti-inflammatory drug can prevent neuron loss in Parkinson's model

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 10:16 AM PDT

An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, a study has shown. The findings demonstrate that the drug, called XPro1595, can reach the brain at sufficient levels and have beneficial effects when administered by subcutaneous injection, like an insulin shot. Previous studies of XPro1595 in animals tested more invasive modes of delivery, such as direct injection into the brain.

Manipulating key protein in brain holds potential against obesity, diabetes

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 10:16 AM PDT

A protein that controls when genes are switched on or off plays a key role in specific areas of the brain to regulate metabolism, researchers have found. The research potentially could lead to new therapies to treat obesity and diabetes, since the transcription factor involved – spliced X-box binding protein 1 – appears to influence the body's sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling.

Collecting just the right data: Algorithm helps identify which data to target

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 08:08 AM PDT

Much artificial-intelligence research addresses the problem of making predictions based on large data sets. An obvious example is the recommendation engines at retail sites like Amazon and Netflix. But some types of data are harder to collect -- information about geological formations thousands of feet underground, for instance. And in other applications -- such as trying to predict the path of a storm -- there may just not be enough time to crunch all the available data. When you can't collect all the data you need, a new algorithm tells you which to target.

Nanoparticle 'alarm clock' tested to awaken immune systems put to sleep by cancer

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 08:07 AM PDT

Researchers are exploring ways to wake up the immune system so it recognizes and attacks invading cancer cells. One pioneering approach uses nanoparticles to jumpstart the body's ability to fight tumors. Nanoparticles are too small to imagine. One billion could fit on the head of a pin. This makes them stealthy enough to penetrate cancer cells with therapeutic agents such as antibodies, drugs, vaccine type viruses, or even metallic particles.

Monitoring rise and fall of the microbiome

Posted: 25 Jul 2014 05:04 AM PDT

Close analysis of bacteria in the human digestive tract reveals links to diet and other lifestyle factors, researchers report. Trillions of bacteria live in each person's digestive tract. Scientists believe that some of these bacteria help digest food and stave off harmful infections, but their role in human health is not well understood.

Saharan dust is key to formation of Bahamas' Great Bank, study finds

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 03:29 PM PDT

Saharan dust played a major role in the formation of the Bahamas islands, a new study suggests. Researchers showed that iron-rich Saharan dust provides the nutrients necessary for specialized bacteria to produce the island chain's carbonate-based foundation. Persistent winds across Africa's 3.5-million square mile Sahara Desert lifts mineral-rich sand into the atmosphere where it travels the nearly 5,000-mile northwest journey towards the U.S. and Caribbean.

Brain's dynamic duel underlies win-win choices

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 02:20 PM PDT

People choosing between two or more equally positive outcomes experience paradoxical feelings of pleasure and anxiety, feelings associated with activity in different regions of the brain, according to research. In the study, participants made choices between paired products with different or similar values. Choosing between two items of high value evoked the most positive feelings and the greatest anxiety.

Moose drool inhibits growth of toxic fungus

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 02:20 PM PDT

Research shows a surprisingly effective way to fight against a certain species of toxic grass fungus: moose saliva. Inspired by an earlier study that showed that moose grazing and saliva distribution can have a positive effect on plant growth, the research team set out to test an interesting hypothesis -- whether moose saliva may, in fact, "detoxify" the grass before it is eaten.

Antioxidant biomaterial promotes healing

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 02:19 PM PDT

The first-ever inherently antioxidant biomaterial has been created by researcher. It has the potential to prevent failure in medical devices and surgical implants. The lead researcher said the new biomaterial could be used to create scaffolds for tissue engineering, coat or build safer medical devices, promote healing in regenerative medicine, and protect cells, genes, and viruses during drug delivery. He added that the new biomaterial is easy to make and inexpensive.

New approach to form non-equilibrium structures

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 02:19 PM PDT

Researchers get closer to understanding the fundamentals of non-equilibrium, self-assembled structures, unlocking potential in a variety of fields. By injecting energy through oscillations, researchers can force particles to self assemble under non-equilibrium conditions, they report.

Humans share fairness concerns with other species

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 02:17 PM PDT

Humans aren't the only species to react strongly to actions they consider unfair. A similar drive for fairness in monkeys and some dogs may offer insight into people's desire for equity, according to experts.

'Naïve' pluripotent human embryonic stem cells created

Posted: 24 Jul 2014 09:36 AM PDT

Embryonic stem cell (ESC) research has been hampered by the inability to transfer research and tools from mouse ESC studies to their human counterparts, in part because human ESCs are "primed" and slightly less plastic than the mouse cells. Now researchers have discovered how to manipulate and maintain human ESCs into a "naïve" or base pluripotent state similar to that of mouse ESCs without the use of any reprogramming factors.
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