Kamis, 30 Juni 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Breakthrough in brain cancer research

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:17 PM PDT

Scientists have made a pioneering breakthrough in the understanding of how a fatal brain tumor grows -- which could lead to improved treatments for patients.

Surface of Mercury arose from deep inside the planet

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:17 PM PDT

Researchers have found that several volcanic deposits on Mercury's surface require mantle melting to have started close to the planet's core-mantle boundary, which lies only 400 km below the planets surface and making it unique in the solar system.

New neuroendovascular technique shows promise in stroke patients with large-vessel clots

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:59 PM PDT

Scientists report promising 90-day outcomes for stroke patients with large-vessel clots who underwent thrombectomy or clot removal using the direct-aspiration, first pass technique (ADAPT). Approximately 58 percent of stroke patients with a large-vessel clot removed using the technique achieved a good outcome at 90 days, defined as a Modified Rankin Score (mRS) of 0 to 2.

Fire discovery sheds new light on 'hobbit' demise

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:59 PM PDT

Crucial new evidence has revealed modern humans (Homo sapiens) were likely using fire at Liang Bua 41,000 years ago, narrowing the time gap between the last hobbits (Homo floresiensis) and the first modern humans at this site on the Indonesian island of Flores.

Men may face high lifetime risk of sudden cardiac death

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:59 PM PDT

One in nine men may be at higher risk of premature death due to sudden cardiac death - usually with no warning. One in 30 women may face the same risk. A new study offers the first lifetime estimates for sudden cardiac death among Americans. High blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors were associated with a higher lifetime risk of sudden cardiac death -- a finding which could lead to screening methods for sudden cardiac death.

El Niño could drive intense season for Amazon fires

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:05 PM PDT

The long-lasting effects of El Niño are projected to cause an intense fire season in the Amazon, according to the 2016 seasonal forecast from experts.

Stem cell treatment for Lou Gehrig's disease may be safe

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:05 PM PDT

A phase II clinical trial in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or Lou Gehrig's disease, suggests that transplanting human stem cells into the spinal cord may be done safely. While the study was not designed to determine whether the treatment was effective, researchers noted that it did not slow down the progression of the disease.

As sea level rises, Hudson River wetlands may expand

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:03 PM PDT

In the face of climate change impact and inevitable sea level rise, scientists studying New York's Hudson River estuary have forecast new tidal wetlands, comprising perhaps 33 percent more wetland area by the year 2100.

Collisions during DNA replication, transcription contribute to mutagenesis

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:02 PM PDT

Replication-transcription head-on collisions contribute to mutagenesis, report scientists.

New technique sorts drivers from passengers in cancer genomics, implicates GON4L

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 01:02 PM PDT

A new study demonstrates a novel method for sorting passenger from driver alterations, and uses this method to pinpoint a new driver and potential therapeutic target in cancer progression, GON4L.

Immune system link to kidney disease risk, research finds

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:52 AM PDT

A gene which forms part of our body's first line of defense against infection may be associated with an increased risk with a type of kidney disease, research indicates.

Inserting stents through the wrist reduces bleeding, death rates in heart disease patients

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:52 AM PDT

Access through the wrist, or radial access, when inserting stents to restore blood flow in heart disease patients has fewer complications and should be the default approach over access through the groin, or femoral access, according to researchers.

Current stimulation to the brain partially restores vision in patients with glaucoma and optic nerve damage

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:52 AM PDT

Vision loss due to glaucoma or optic nerve damage is generally considered irreversible. Now a new prospective, randomized, multi-center clinical trial demonstrates significant vision improvement in partially blind patients after 10 days of noninvasive, transorbital alternating current stimulation. In addition to activation of their residual vision, patients also experienced improvement in vision-related quality of life such as acuity, reading, mobility or orientation.

Radiation-guided nanoparticles zero in on metastatic cancer

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:52 AM PDT

Zap a tumor with radiation to trigger expression of a molecule, then attack that molecule with a drug-loaded nanoparticle, say cancer researchers.

Little to no association between butter consumption, chronic disease or total mortality

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:52 AM PDT

An epidemiological study analyzing the association of butter consumption with chronic disease and mortality finds that butter was only weakly associated with total mortality, not associated with heart disease, and slightly inversely associated (protective) with diabetes.

Rio athletes may benefit from 'leaky gut' therapy

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:51 AM PDT

'Leaky gut' is a condition where the thin mucosal barrier of the gut, which plays a role in absorbing nutrients and preventing large molecules and germs from the gut entering the blood stream, becomes less effective. It is a particular problem for those taking part in heavy exercise or who are active in hot conditions. New research suggests a simple dietary supplement could help.

Total face transplant in patient with severe burns: Team outlines surgical approach

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 11:01 AM PDT

Last year, the most extensive clinical face transplant to date was successfully carried out. A complete report on this procedure -- including the extensive organizational and training program created to prepare for it -- has just been published.

A protein coat helps chromosomes keep their distance

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:59 AM PDT

Researchers have identified a protein that disperses chromosomes during cell division. That proteins can function as surfactants inside the cell was completely unexpected.

Climate study finds human fingerprint in Northern Hemisphere greening

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:58 AM PDT

The first positive correlation between human activity and enhanced vegetation growth has been uncovered by a team of researchers.

New method detects telomere length for research into cancer, aging

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:58 AM PDT

Cell biologists have identified a new method for determining the length of telomeres, the endcaps of chromosomes, which can influence cancer progression and aging.

Research reveals widespread herbicide use on North American wildlands

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:58 AM PDT

Researchers are giving the public its first look at the widespread use of herbicides on federal and tribal land in North America, and they urge land managers to better document it.

Making better orthopedic surgeons: Track their errors as well as their skills

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:58 AM PDT

In a small study to determine the best way to assess the operating skills of would-be orthopedic surgeons, researchers found that tracking the trainees' performance on cadavers using step-by-step checklists and measures of general surgical skills works well but should be coupled with an equally rigorous system for tracking errors.

Mountaineering ants use body heat to warm nests

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:58 AM PDT

Underground army ants can keep their nests -- called bivouacs -- warm with their body heat; this social warming may enable fragile offspring to survive in chilly mountain forests, according to researchers.

Motivation to bully is regulated by brain reward circuits

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:52 AM PDT

Researchers have identified nerve cell communication between specific brain regions, providing insight for the development of new therapeutic strategies, and new information on possible motivation for bullying.

Some surfaces are wetted by water, others are water-repellent: A new material can be both

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:52 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered a robust surface whose adhesive and wetting properties can be switched using electricity.

Country pledges overshoot Paris temperature limit

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:52 AM PDT

Individual country pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions would need to be strengthened in order to limit future climate change to well below the 2 degrees Celsius limit included in the Paris climate agreement, according to a new assessment.

Watching a forest breathe

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:52 AM PDT

For the first time, scientists traced carbon dioxide flows through a forest during photosynthesis and respiration, correcting long-standing assumptions about how plants exchange the greenhouse gas with the atmosphere on an ecosystem-wide level. The results could help make climate prediction models more accurate.

Viral protein silences immune alarm signals

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:52 AM PDT

Viruses must avoid a host's immune system to establish successful infections -- and scientists have discovered another tool that viruses use to frustrate host defenses. New research demonstrates a novel mechanism by which viruses shut down alarm signals that trigger immune responses. This finding may open the door to future tools for controlling unwanted inflammation in severe infections, cancers and other settings.

Plate tectonics without jerking: Detailed recordings of earthquakes on ultraslow mid-ocean ridges

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:52 AM PDT

The earthquake distribution on ultra-slow mid-ocean ridges differs fundamentally from other spreading zones. Water circulating at a depth of up to 15 kilometers leads to the formation of rock that resembles soft soap. This is how the continental plates on ultra-slow mid-ocean ridges may move without jerking, while the same process in other regions leads to many minor earthquakes, according to geophysicists.

Asteroid day will draw eyes to the stars, but the more urgent threat may be under our feet

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:06 AM PDT

Knowing when an asteroid could impact Earth would be nice, but learning more about the impact a super volcano eruption at Yellowstone would have on civilization — and how to be ready for it — might be more prudent.

Make no mistake, revenge is (bitter) sweet

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 10:04 AM PDT

Deep, dark and sometimes overwhelming, the human compulsion to seek revenge is a complex emotion that science has found incredibly hard to explain. Despite popular consensus that "revenge is sweet," years of experimental research have suggested otherwise, finding that revenge is seldom as satisfying as we anticipate and often leaves the avenger less happy in the long run. New research is adding a twist to the science of revenge, showing that our love-hate relationship with this dark desire is indeed a mixed bag, making us feel both good and bad, for reasons we might not expect.

Findings show gender, not race, a factor in college engineering dropouts

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:59 AM PDT

Researchers are exploring how ethnic and gender variables affect retention rates, goal setting and satisfaction among engineering students. Preliminary findings in the middle of this five-year study found no differences in retention between Latino and white engineering students, but did show differences between men and women. Their study could help shape methods needed to retain students in engineering fields.

Watching the brain during language learning

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:59 AM PDT

For the first time, researchers have captured images of the brain during the initial hours and days of learning a new language. They use an artificial language with real structures to show how new linguistic information is integrated into the same brain areas used for your native language.

Everolimus R-CHOP combination safe for treating diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:58 AM PDT

The targeted therapy everolimus may be safely combined with R-CHOP for new, untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the results of a pilot study. R-CHOP is a combination of drugs used to treat lymphoma. The combination includes rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone.

Researchers identify the molecular roots of lung damage in preemies with GI disease

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:58 AM PDT

Scientists have figured out a root cause of the lung damage that occurs in up to 10 percent of premature infants who develop necrotizing enterocolitis, a disorder that damages and kills the lining of the intestine.

Saved by the sun: Solar-powered oxygen delivery system helps save lives in Uganda

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:58 AM PDT

A new twist on the use of renewable energy is saving children's lives in Africa. The innovation -- a solar-powered oxygen delivery system -- is providing concentrated oxygen in hospital for children suffering from severe pneumonia.

Allergy-causing 'bad guy' cells unexpectedly prove life-saving in C. difficile

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:58 AM PDT

Researchers have identified immune cells vital for protecting us from potentially deadly C. difficile. Surprisingly, those cells are often vilified for their role in causing asthma and allergies. But when it comes to C. difficile, they could be the difference in life and death.

Key power-splitting component for terahertz waves

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:58 AM PDT

One of the most basic components of any communications network is a power splitter that allows a signal to be sent to multiple users and devices. Researchers have now developed just such a device for terahertz radiation -- a range of frequencies that may one day enable data transfer up to 100 times faster than current cellular and Wi-Fi networks.

Northern bird found to be more resilient to winter weather

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:58 AM PDT

Northern wrens are larger and more resilient to winter weather than those living in the south, new research reveals. The research means that populations inhabiting regions where winters are more severe show some form of adaptation. The research team say that their findings have particular relevance to our understanding of how birds and other species are able to respond to climate change.

Surprising qualities of insulator ring surfaces

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:56 AM PDT

Topological insulators behave like insulators at their core and allow good conductivity on their surface. They owe their characteristics to a new quantum state within the material discovered in 2007 and 2009 for 2-D and 3-D materials, respectively. Scientists studying the surface of ring-shaped, or toric, topological insulators, have just discovered some characteristics that had only previously been confirmed in spheres.

Rate of decline of cardiovascular deaths slows in US

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:56 AM PDT

Recent national trends in death rates due to all cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease (HD), stroke, and cancer, have been evaluated by research, who also evaluated the gap between mortality rates from heart disease and cancer.

Ovarian cancer study uncovers new biology

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 09:56 AM PDT

In what is believed to be the largest study of its kind, scientists led a study that examined the proteomes of 169 ovarian cancer patients to identify critical proteins expressed by their tumors.

Educating parents on healthy infant sleep habits may help prevent obesity

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 08:10 AM PDT

Teaching parents bedtime techniques to encourage healthy sleep habits in their infants may help prevent obesity, according to researchers. Strong links exist between inadequate sleep and childhood obesity.

E-cigarette use among college students: Helpful aid or risky enabler?

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 08:00 AM PDT

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The study connects e-cigarette use in colleges to high rates of alcohol consumption and other factors such as: gender, race/ethnicity and traditional cigarettes. The rise of e-cigarettes may be a positive consequence of cigarette smokers who use this product to quit smoking or to avoid the toxicity of traditional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use does not always reflect an attempt to reduce cigarette smoking and may instead indicate a general propensity to use psychoactive substances, especially among emerging adults.

Triple external quantum efficiencies: New material TADF was developed

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

An international joint research group succeeded in developing a novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material which displays emission of light in colors from green to deep-red through Intersystem Crossing from the singlet to the triplet excitons, a world first. The results will contribute to R&D in white TADF light emitting devices for indoor and outdoor use through combination with TADF materials that emit light in shorter wavelengths (deep blue to yellow).

Analysis of 1976 Ebola outbreak holds lessons relevant today

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

With the recent Ebola epidemic in West Africa reviving interest in the first outbreak of the deadly hemorrhagic fever 40 years ago, scientists have published a new report that highlights lessons learned from the smaller, more quickly contained 1976 outbreak.

Modeling NAFLD with human pluripotent stem cell derived immature hepatocyte like cells

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

Researchers have established an in vitro model system for investigating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), also called steatosis, is a dramatically under-estimated liver disease, with increasing incidences throughout the world. It is frequently associated with obesity and type-2 diabetes.

New research could lead to restoring vision for sufferers of retinal disorders

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

Engineers and neuroscientists have demonstrated for the first time that the cells in the retina carry out key processing tasks. This could pave the way for improving retinal implants and therefore the sight of thousands of people suffering from retinal disorders, they say.

Protein associated with improved survival in some breast cancer patients

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

A family of proteins that help cancer cells survive and spread around the body may be associated with improved prognosis for some women receiving treatment for breast cancer, research has shown.

Truth to age-old maxim 'work hard, play hard'

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

A biology professor has published a study that, for the first time, provides strong empirical support for a correlation between a motivation to seek accomplishment and an attraction to leisure.

Blue-collar training in high school leaves women behind

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

What's the best way to prepare high schoolers for jobs in the 21st century? Education leaders and the general public have been debating this question with more heat in recent years, clashing over whether to focus on college preparation or vocational training, especially training linked to blue-collar jobs.

Anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy responsive in microsatellite-stable mCRC comb with MEK inhibition

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:59 AM PDT

Anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy may achieve a response in patients with microsatellite-stable metastatic colorectal cancer if combined with a MEK inhibitor, according to phase I data.

Overweight youths at greater risk for heart failure

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:58 AM PDT

Losing weight as an adult is fine if you want to reduce your risk of heart attack. But you don't necessarily reduce the risk of other heart problems if you only start focusing on proper weight and fitness later in life. High BMI when you're young increases the risk of heart failure, say researchers, even if you're dieting away the pounds as you get older. Research indicates that yo-yo dieting is the worst.

Crowd-sourced competition to create 'big data' diagnostic tools

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:58 AM PDT

A crowdsourced collaboration/competition known as DREAM 9 set out three years ago to develop ideas for computational tools that would help treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

Jasmonate-deficient tobacco plants attract herbivorous mammals

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:58 AM PDT

Scientists have demonstrated the importance of jasmonate-dependent nicotine production for the survival of tobacco plants which are attacked by mammalian herbivores.

Certain red flags indicate an increased need for intensive care among patients with asthma

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:58 AM PDT

In patients admitted to the hospital for asthma, illicit drug use and low socioeconomic status were linked with an increased risk of requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Not adhering to asthma prevention medication further increased this risk.

Physical activity boosts kids' brain power, academic prowess

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:57 AM PDT

Exercise boosts kids' and young people's brain power and academic prowess, experts say, adding that time taken away from lessons for it is time well spent.

Sexual arms race drives range expansion in UK diving beetle species

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:57 AM PDT

Sexual conflict and relative mating success seems to be driving a dramatic shift in the distribution of diving beetles in the UK, a new shows.

It's not just a grunt: Pigs really do have something to say

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:03 AM PDT

The grunts made by pigs vary depending on the pig's personality and can convey important information about the welfare of this highly social species, new research has found.

Tracking solar eruptions in 3D

Posted: 29 Jun 2016 07:03 AM PDT

Scientists have developed an automated method for three-dimensional tracking of massive eruptions from the Sun, called Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The Automated CME Triangulation (ACT) system uses data from three space-based observatories that orbit the Sun at different locations, allowing scientists to view the Sun and CMEs from different angles. ACT's ability to track whether a CME is heading towards Earth, and when it is likely to reach us, should lead to significant improvements in space weather forecasting.
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