Senin, 26 September 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Shape-shifters found in the Belt Supergroup: Revelations about Tappania plana

Posted: 25 Sep 2016 11:29 AM PDT

The rise of eukaryotic organisms (organisms with complex cells, or a single cell with a complex structure) is still a mystery, but researchers have compelling evidence that Tappania plana may represent one of the earliest eukaryotic fossils. Well-preserved Tappania plana fossils from a Montana field site could be a crown-group eukaryote, providing one of the first links from this period in the fossil record to extant eukaryotes.
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Minggu, 25 September 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Acidity in atmosphere minimized to preindustrial levels

Posted: 24 Sep 2016 07:32 PM PDT

New research shows that human pollution of the atmosphere with acid is now almost back to the level that it was before the pollution started with industrialization in the 1930s. The results come from studies of the Greenland ice sheet.

Pluto’s ‘heart’ sheds light on possible buried ocean

Posted: 24 Sep 2016 07:24 PM PDT

Ever since NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew by Pluto last year, evidence has been mounting that the dwarf planet may have a liquid ocean beneath its icy shell. Now, by modeling the impact dynamics that created a massive crater on Pluto's surface, a team of researchers has made a new estimate of how thick that liquid layer might be.

Childhood muscular fitness and adult metabolic syndrome

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 10:02 PM PDT

About 20-25 percent of adults have the metabolic syndrome and have increased risk of developing both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In a new longitudinal study, investigators examined associations between childhood muscular fitness (strength, endurance, and power) and metabolic syndrome -- the latter assessed once they reached adulthood.

Does physical activity lower the risk of bacterial infections?

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 10:02 PM PDT

The risk of viral infections is known to be affected by physical activity, but little information is available regarding the more serious infections caused by bacteria. In a new study, investigators examined the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and suspected bacterial infections during a one-year follow up.

Yoga may not count toward 30 minutes of daily physical activity, but may have other benefits

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 10:02 PM PDT

Hatha yoga is an increasingly popular form of physical activity and meditative practice in the U.S. It is important to understand the calorie cost and intensity of yoga in relation to the national physical activity guidelines, which generally encourage 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week.

How natural selection acted on one penguin species over the past quarter century

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 10:02 PM PDT

Biologists combed through 28 years' worth of data on Magellanic penguins to search for signs that natural selection -- one of the main drivers of evolution -- may be acting on certain penguin traits.

Supporting employees to stand up, sit less and move more

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 10:01 PM PDT

Employers can implement an intervention to substantially reduce the sitting time of office workers both during work hours and across the day.

Colorful demise of a sun-like star

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 12:49 PM PDT

Our sun will eventually burn out and shroud itself with stellar debris, but not for another 5 billion years.

Team compares effectiveness of four PD-L1 tests

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 12:24 PM PDT

In a recent study, a research team compared the performance of the four available PD-L1 assay tests. They found that one of the assays failed to reveal comparable levels of PD-L1, a tumor-promoting protein, while three others revealed comparable levels.

Ice Man, Ötzi: A treacherous murder with links to Central Italy

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 11:01 AM PDT

The copper used to make Ötzi's axe blade did not come from the Alpine region as had previously been supposed, but from ore mined in southern Tuscany. Ötzi was probably not involved in working the metal himself, as the high levels of arsenic and copper found in his hair had, until now, led us to assume. His murder over 5,000 years ago seems to have been brought about due to a personal conflict a few days before his demise, and the man from the ice, despite his normal weight and active life-style, suffered from extensive vascular calcification.

Greenland rising as ice melts

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 09:37 AM PDT

A new study on the Greenland Ice Sheet provides valuable insight on climate change, using unique research methods to establish new estimates of ice loss for both modern and ancient times, says geologists.

Melatonin, biological clock keep singing fish on time

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 09:26 AM PDT

In the 1980s, people living on houseboats in the San Francisco Bay were puzzled by a droning hum of unknown origin that started abruptly in the late evening and stopped suddenly in the morning. A lengthy investigation revealed the culprit: male plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) that sing at night to attract mates. The fish, which can grow to 15 inches in length, live along the Pacific coast from Alaska to Baja, California.

Engineers create room-temperature multiferroic material

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 09:22 AM PDT

Multiferroics -- materials that exhibit both magnetic and electric order -- are of interest for next-generation computing but difficult to create because the conditions conducive to each of those states are usually mutually exclusive. And in most multiferroics found to date, their respective properties emerge only at extremely low temperatures. Now researchers have combined two non-multiferroic materials, using the best attributes of both to create a new room-temperature multiferroic.

Science can shape healthy city planning

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 09:10 AM PDT

The health gains achieved if cities were designed so that shops, facilities, work and public transportation were within walking distance of most residents have now been quantified by researchers. In a series of articles, researchers tackle how to implement timely research into city design, planning and policy to improve the health of a city's residents.

Violence against police officers can trigger increased discrimination in police stops

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 09:10 AM PDT

Incidents of extreme violence against police officers can lead to periods of substantially increased racial disparities in the use of force by police, new research indicates.

Scientists find twisting 3-D raceway for electrons in nanoscale crystal slices

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 09:10 AM PDT

An exotic 3-D racetrack for electrons in ultrathin slices of a crystal has been observed for the first time, by a group of researchers. The ultimate goal of this research is to approach the lossless conduction of another class of materials, known as superconductors, but without the need for the extreme, freezing temperatures that superconductors require.

Stronger turbine blades with molybdenum silicides

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 08:20 AM PDT

Molybdenum silicides can improve the efficiency of turbine blades in ultrahigh-temperature combustion systems, researchers have discovered.

Oxygen levels were key to early animal evolution, strongest evidence now shows

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 07:07 AM PDT

It has long puzzled scientists why, after 3 billion years of nothing more complex than algae, complex animals suddenly started to appear on Earth. Now, a team of researchers has put forward some of the strongest evidence yet to support the hypothesis that high levels of oxygen in the oceans were crucial for the emergence of skeletal animals 550 million years ago.

How to power up graphene implants without frying cells

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 07:05 AM PDT

In the future, our health may be monitored and maintained by tiny sensors and drug dispensers, deployed within the body and made from graphene -- one of the strongest, lightest materials in the world. Graphene is composed of a single sheet of carbon atoms, linked together like razor-thin chicken wire, and its properties may be tuned in countless ways, making it a versatile material for tiny, next-generation implants.

Automated screening for childhood communication disorders

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 06:53 AM PDT

For children with speech and language disorders, early-childhood intervention can make a great difference in their later academic and social success. But many such children -- one study estimates 60 percent -- go undiagnosed until kindergarten or even later.

To produce biopharmaceuticals on demand, just add water

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 06:46 AM PDT

Researchers have created tiny freeze-dried pellets that include all of the molecular machinery needed to translate DNA into proteins, which could form the basis for on-demand production of drugs and vaccines.

Landmark map reveals the genetic wiring of cellular life

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 06:44 AM PDT

A new map breaks away from the old way of studying genes one at a time, showing how genes interact in groups to shed light on the genetic roots of diseases.

Vitamin B levels during pregnancy linked to eczema risk in child

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 06:29 AM PDT

Infants whose mothers had a higher level of a particular type of vitamin B during pregnancy have a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months, new research has shown. The study is the first to link maternal serum levels of nicotinamide, a naturally occurring vitamin, and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the child.

Apple, lettuce can remedy garlic breath

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:38 AM PDT

Garlic -- consumers either love or hate the taste, but one thing is for certain, no one likes it when the scent of it sticks around on their breath. Now, garlic lovers may have a new solution to their halitosis problem. A study has found that eating raw apple or lettuce may help reduce garlic breath.

Caspian terns discovered nesting 1,000 miles farther to the north than ever recorded in Alaska

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:38 AM PDT

In the late summer of 2016, a field team monitored Caspian tern chicks through to fledging in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in Alaska. This discovery of Caspian terns breeding above the Arctic Circle in the Chukchi Sea is nearly 1,000 miles farther north than previously recorded – a strikingly large jump in the range of nesting for this (or any) species.

Pediatric atopic dermatitis may benefit from early immune intervention

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:38 AM PDT

An association between pediatric eczema and large abnormalities in non-lesional skin and multi T lymphocyte axes activation has been uncovered by researchers.

Precision medicine trial first of its kind to show benefit to patients

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:36 AM PDT

A clinical trial for types of advanced cancer is the first of its kind to show that precision medicine – or tailoring treatment for individual people – can slow down the time it takes for a tumor to grow back, according to research.

Underwater 'Cystoseira zosteroides' forests, the Mediterranean algae, threatened by human activity impact

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:36 AM PDT

The effects of an intense storm every twenty-five years could make the marine alga populations of Cystoseira zosteroides disappear – an endemic species of the Mediterranean with great ecological value for the biodiversity of marine benthos – according to a new article.

Unique molecular atlas of pancreas produced

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:36 AM PDT

The first molecular map of the genes that are active in the various cells of the human pancreas has now been produced by researchers. They have also revealed differences in genetic activity between people with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.

New hope in fight against aggressive, often hard to treat brain tumor

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:35 AM PDT

A potential way of stopping one of the most aggressive types of brain tumor from spreading has now been identified by researchers, which could lead the way to better patient survival. Glioblastoma is one of the most common types of malignant brain tumors in adults. They are fast growing and can spread easily. The tumor has threadlike tendrils that extend into other parts of the brain making it difficult to remove it all.

Ouch! Avoiding failure leads to missed opportunities for children with ADHD

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:35 AM PDT

Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are potentially more exposed to reproaches than typically developing children, explain researchers. A behavioral experiment on reward and punishment highlights the cumulative effect of punishment in children with ADHD.

Multifaceted genetic impact of training

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:35 AM PDT

Endurance training changes the activity of thousands of genes and give rise to a multitude of altered DNA-copies, RNA, researchers report. The study also nuances the concept of muscle memory.

Lipid receptor fosters infection of the uterus in bitches

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:35 AM PDT

In the female dog, cells of the uterus can accumulate lipid droplets to form so-called foamy epithelial cells during late metoestrus. These cells produce a hormone that is involved in the implantation of the embryo in the uterus. A team of researchers has now shown for the first time that the factor assisting the cells in lipid accumulation also facilitates the binding of bacteria to the epithelial cells, resulting in serious infections of the uterus in female dogs.

Al­tern­at­ive ox­i­dase from a mar­ine an­imal works in mam­mals, com­bats bac­terial sepsis

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:35 AM PDT

Mitochondrial alternative oxidase from a sea-squirt works as a safety valve for stressed mitochondria. This property enables it to stop the runaway inflammatory process that leads to multiple organ failure and eventual death in bacterial sepsis.

Long-term monitoring of sapovirus infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti

Posted: 23 Sep 2016 05:35 AM PDT

Sapoviruses are an emerging group of viruses of the group of caliciviruses and well known agents of gastric enteritis, but very little is currently known about their role in wildlife ecology or the genetic strains that infect wildlife. Research findings by a group of scientists describe for the first time, sapovirus infection in African wild carnivores in the Serengeti ecosystem, including the spotted hyena, the African lion and the bat-eared fox. The results from two decades of monitoring revealed several sapovirus outbreaks of infection in spotted hyenas and, counter-intuitively, that the risk of infection declined as group sizes increased.

Specific trauma experiences contribute to women's alcohol use, differs by race

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 02:46 PM PDT

Trauma exposure has consistently been reported as a risk factor for alcohol use and related problems. Further, racial differences in alcohol use, alcohol use disorder (AUD), and trauma exposure between European American (EA) and African American (AA) women have been reported previously. This study sought to identify racial differences in alcohol involvement, and to examine the risk conferred by specific trauma exposures and PTSD for different stages of alcohol involvement in EA and AA women.

Older adults with long-term alcohol dependence lose neurocognitive abilities

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 02:46 PM PDT

Heavy drinking can lead to neurophysiological and cognitive changes ranging from disrupted sleep to more serious neurotoxic effects. Aging can also contribute to cognitive decline. Several studies on the interaction of current heavy drinking and aging have had varied results. This study sought to elucidate the relations among age, heavy drinking, and neurocognitive function.

Resonance in Rainbow Bridge

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 01:12 PM PDT

Utah's iconic Rainbow Bridge hums with natural and human-made vibrations, according to a new study. The study characterizes the different ways the bridge vibrates and what frequencies and energy sources cause the rock structure to resonate. The vibrations are small, according to a geology and geophysics professor, but the study provides a baseline measure of the bridge's structural integrity and shows how human activities can rattle solid rock.

100 million prescription opioids go unused each year following wisdom teeth removal, study estimates

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 01:12 PM PDT

More than half of opioids prescribed to patients following surgical tooth extraction – such as the removal of impacted wisdom teeth – were left unused by patients, research shows. The authors say the surplus is troubling given the ongoing opioid epidemic and evidence showing that individuals who abuse prescription opioids often use leftover pills that were prescribed for friends or family members.

Marriage made in sunlight: Invention merges solar with liquid battery

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 11:44 AM PDT

As solar cells produce a greater proportion of total electric power, a fundamental limitation remains: the dark of night when solar cells go to sleep. Lithium-ion batteries are too expensive a solution to use on something as massive as the electric grid. A professor of chemistry has a better idea: integrating the solar cell with a large-capacity battery.

Melanoma tumors use interferon-gamma mutations to fight immunotherapy

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 09:54 AM PDT

Melanoma tumors use genetic mutations in a prominent immune response pathway to resist the immunotherapy ipilimumab, researchers report. These findings open the door to testing an array of IFN-y genes prospectively as a predictor for response to ipilimumab and for exploring new combinations to defeat IFN-y-related resistance.

Ancient remedy becomes novel approach to treating clostridium difficile infection

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 09:44 AM PDT

The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection, clinical presentation of infection, diagnosis and various therapies including fecal microbiota transplant have been the focus of recent research, all laid out in a new report.

Peeling back the layers: Scientists use new techniques to uncover hidden secrets of plant stem development

Posted: 22 Sep 2016 09:39 AM PDT

Innovative new cell imaging techniques have now been pioneered to shed light on cells hidden deep inside the meristem. This new development has made it possible to explore further below the outer surface of plants and has uncovered how a key gene controls stem growth.
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