Jumat, 28 November 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Fragile X study offers hope of new autism treatment

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 10:57 AM PST

People affected by a common inherited form of autism could be helped by a drug that is being tested as a treatment for cancer, according to researchers. Fragile X Syndrome is the most common genetic cause of autism spectrum disorders. It affects around 1 in 4,000 boys and 1 in 6,000 girls. Currently, there is no cure.

Mindfulness treatment as effective as CBT for depression, anxiety

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 08:27 AM PST

Group mindfulness treatment is as effective as individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with depression and anxiety, according to a new study. This is the first randomized study to compare group mindfulness treatment and individual cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with depression and anxiety in primary health care.

Ancient dental plaque: A 'Whey' into our milk drinking past?

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 06:49 AM PST

We drink milk because it is good for us, but we rarely stop to think "Why?" Archaeologists and geneticists have been puzzling this question since it was revealed that the mutations which enable adults to drink milk are under the strongest selection of any in the human genome.

New research supporting stroke rehabilitation

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

New research could help improve stroke patients' rehabilitation, experts say. The research may provide useful applications for the care of stroke patients who have restricted use of their upper limbs. If stroke patients practice the techniques recommended by the study, it could potentially help maintain activity in movement-related brain areas, especially when used alongside more traditional physiotherapy techniques where the same movements are also practiced physically.

Significantly increased risk of stillbirth in males, study shows

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

Boys are more likely to be stillborn than girls, a large-scale study has found. The study reviewed more than 30 million births globally, and found that the risk of stillbirth is about ten percent higher in boys. This equates to a loss of around 100,000 additional male babies per year.

Ancient marine algae provides clues of climate change impact on today's microscopic ocean organisms

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

A study of ancient marine algae has found that climate change affected their growth and skeleton structure, which has potential significance for today's equivalent microscopic organisms that play an important role in the world's oceans. Coccolithophores, a type of marine algae, are prolific in the ocean today and have been for millions of years. These single-celled plankton produce calcite skeletons that are preserved in seafloor sediments after death. Although coccolithophores are microscopic, their abundance makes them key contributors to marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle.

New antimicrobial edible films increase lifespan of cheese

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

New coatings to apply to soft cheese have been developed by researchers. These coatings are totally edible and have an antimicrobial capacity, which increases the lifespan of the cheese. These films incorporate oregano and rosemary essential oils as antimicrobial agents, and chitosan, a by-product that comes from crustacean shells.

'Trigger' for stress processes discovered in brain

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

An important factor for stress has been identified by scientists. This is the protein secretagogin that plays an important role in the release of the stress hormone CRH and which only then enables stress processes in the brain to be transmitted to the pituitary gland and then onwards to the organs.

Drug to reduce side-effects of 'binge drinking' developed

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

A drug that could reduce the harmful side-effects of 'binge drinking', especially by teenagers, has been successfully developed and tested by a team of scientists. Researchers say that this development may also link to new ways to treat Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases that damage the brain. 

Uterine contractions increase success of artificial insemination

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:21 AM PST

The negative impact of contractions during in vitro fertilization is a well-known fact. What was unknown until now was the effect it had on artificial insemination. A new study has discovered that it is the contrary to that seen in embryo transfer: there is an improved chance of getting pregnant. Researchers have demonstrated that the number of contractions of the uterus per minute is a parameter associated with success in artificial insemination procedures.

Stroke damage mechanism identified

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:21 AM PST

A mechanism linked to the brain damage often suffered by stroke victims has been discovered by scientists, who are now searching for drugs to block it. Strokes happen when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off but much of the harm to survivors' memory and other cognitive function is often actually caused by "oxidative stress" in the hours and days after the blood supply resumes, the authors explain.

How can we avoid kelp beds turning into barren grounds?

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:21 AM PST

Urchins are marine invertebrates that mold the biological richness of marine grounds. However, an excessive proliferation of urchins may also have severe ecological consequences on marine grounds as they reduce algal cover and affect the survival of other marine species. To explore global dynamics and the factors that turn kelp beds into barren grounds is the main objective of a new study.

Teens with a history of TBI are nearly 4 times more likely to have used crystal meth

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 03:51 PM PST

Ontario students between grades 9 and 12 who said they had a traumatic brain injury in their lifetime, also reported drug use rates two to four times higher than peers with no history of TBI, according to research.

Artificial pancreas shown to improve treatment of type 1 diabetes

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 03:50 PM PST

The world's first clinical trial comparing three alternative treatments for type 1 diabetes demonstrates that the external artificial pancreas improves glucose control and reduces the risk of hypoglycemia compared to conventional diabetes treatment.

Heat-conducting plastic: 10 times better than conventional counterparts

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 02:16 PM PST

The spaghetti-like internal structure of most plastics makes it hard for them to cast away heat, but a research team has made a plastic blend that does so 10 times better than its conventional counterparts.

Trial shows new imaging system may cut X-ray exposure for liver cancer patients

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 02:14 PM PST

Researchers report that their test of an interventional X-ray guidance device approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013 has the potential to reduce the radiation exposure of patients undergoing intra-arterial therapy for liver cancer.

Experimental Ebola vaccine appears safe, prompts immune response

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 02:14 PM PST

An experimental vaccine to prevent Ebola virus disease was well-tolerated and produced immune system responses in all 20 healthy adults who received it in a Phase 1 clinical trial.

Nervous system may play bigger role in infections than previously known

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 02:14 PM PST

The nervous system may play a bigger role in infections and autoimmune diseases than previously known.

Follow-up on psychiatric disorders in young people after release from detention

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 02:14 PM PST

Juvenile offenders with multiple psychiatric disorders when they are incarcerated in detention centers appear to be at high risk for disorders five years after detention, according to a report.

Why do so many seniors with memory loss and dementia never get tested?

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 02:13 PM PST

Despite clear signs that their memory and thinking abilities have gone downhill, more than half of seniors with these symptoms haven't seen a doctor about them, a new study finds.

How do our muscles work?

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 12:14 PM PST

Scientists have elucidated the molecular structure and regulation of the essential muscle protein alpha-actinin. The new findings allow unprecedented insights into the protein's mode of action and its role in muscle disorders. The findings may lead to improved treatments, researchers say.

Forget about the car keys, do you know when to take away your parent's checkbook?

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 12:14 PM PST

Financial management skills can decline with age, which can lead to catastrophic money woes for seniors. Declining financial aptitude can also be a sign of impending memory loss. In a new article, researchers present some warning signs.

Arctic conditions may become critical for polar bears by end of 21st century

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 11:42 AM PST

Shifts in the timing and duration of ice cover, especially the possible lengthening of ice-free periods, may impact polar bears under projected warming before the end of the 21st century, experts say.
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