Jumat, 28 Oktober 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Senescent cells, atherosclerosis progression appear to be linked

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:33 AM PDT

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which arteries narrow due to plaques. That narrowing can lead to heart attacks and strokes — both of which are leading causes of death in the U.S. Now, in paper shows that senescent cells drive plaque formation in animal models of atherosclerosis.

Vitamin d supplements for pregnant women should be customised to the individual to ensure benefits are felt

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:33 AM PDT

Vitamin D supplements are less effective at raising vitamin D levels in pregnant women if they deliver their babies in the winter, have low levels of vitamin D early in pregnancy or gain more weight during pregnancy, a new study has shown.

Male birth control shots prevent pregnancy

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:33 AM PDT

Men can take birth control shots to prevent pregnancy in their female partners, according to a new study. Researchers are still working to perfect the combination of hormonal contraceptives to reduce the risk of mild to moderate side effects, including depression and other mood disorders.

Climate change means major ecosystem shifts for the Mediterranean Basin

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:30 AM PDT

Global warming above 1.5°Celsius, the ideal limit set by the 2015 Paris Agreement, will change the Mediterranean region, producing ecosystems never seen throughout the last 10,000 years, a new study reports. Already, regional temperatures in the Mediterranean basin are about 1.3°C higher than they were between 1880 and 1920, compared with an increase of roughly 0.85°C worldwide during the same period.

Genome sequencing reveals ancient interbreeding between chimpanzees and bonobos

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:24 AM PDT

For the first time, scientists have revealed ancient gene mixing between chimpanzees and bonobos, humankind's closest relatives, showing parallels with Neanderthal mixing in human ancestry. The study showed that one percent of chimpanzee genomes are derived from bonobos.

Research into basic workings of immune system points to way of improving therapies for cancer

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:23 AM PDT

In people with chronic infections or cancer, disease-fighting T cells tend to behave like an overworked militia - wheezing, ill-prepared, tentative - in a state of "exhaustion" that allows disease to persist. In a new paper, researchers have found that in mice with chronic viral infection, exhausted T cells are controlled by a fundamentally different set of molecular circuits than T cells effectively battling infections or cancer -- a finding that suggests a way to increase the staying power of CAR T cells, a promising form of immunotherapy for cancer.

Insights into giant impacts on moon, Earth and Mars

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 11:10 AM PDT

New results from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission are providing insights into the huge impacts that dominated the early history of Earth's moon and other solid worlds, like Earth, Mars, and the satellites of the outer solar system.

Mitochondria control stem cell fate

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:34 AM PDT

If the powerhouse of the cell, mitochondria, is disrupted, stem cells in the gut suffer, researchers have discovered. The human intestinal system covers an area of approximately 300 to 500 square meters due to its many protrusions (villi). This inner intestinal wall full of tiny bumps renews itself completely once every four to five days, a process which is guided by stem cells. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of a cell and provide energy through respiration, and play a crucial part in this process.

Cause of phantom limb pain in amputees, and potential treatment, identified

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:33 AM PDT

Researchers have identified the cause of chronic, and currently untreatable, pain in those with amputations and severe nerve damage, as well as a potential treatment which relies on engineering instead of drugs.

Effect of facial expression on emotional state not replicated in multilab study

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:31 AM PDT

A coordinated replication effort conducted across 17 labs found no evidence that surreptitiously inducing people to smile or frown affects their emotional state.

Enzyme is crucial for combatting antibiotic-resistant E. coli infections

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:31 AM PDT

New research is expected to pave the way for new approaches to kill bacteria that no longer respond to conventional antibiotics.

New method to help solve the problem of nuclear waste

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:28 AM PDT

In the last decades, nanomaterials have gained broad scientific and technological interest due to their unusual properties compared to micrometre-sized materials. At this scale, matter shows properties governed by size. At the present time, nanomaterials are studied to be employed in many different fields, including the nuclear one. Thus, nuclear fuels production, structural materials, separation techniques and waste management, all may benefit from an excellent knowledge in the nano-nuclear technology. No wonder researchers are on the constant lookout for better ways to improve their production.

New warning over spread of ash dieback

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:28 AM PDT

The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research. Scientists have discovered that asexual spores of the ash dieback fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) are infectious and can germinate on leaves or infect seedlings via soil.

Concern that radiation may contribute to development of Alzheimer's

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:27 AM PDT

More humans than ever are exposed to higher levels of ionizing radiation from medical equipment, airplanes, etc. A new study suggests that this kind of radiation may be a confounding factor in the neurodegenerative disease Alzheimer's.

'Super emitters' responsible for more than half of US methane emissions

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:27 AM PDT

Just a few natural gas wells account for more than half of the total volume of leaked methane gas in the United States, research indicates. Fixing leaks at those top emitters could significantly reduce leaks of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, say researchers.

Want to exercise more? Get yourself some competition

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:25 AM PDT

Competition is a far stronger motivation for exercise than friendly support, and in fact, giving people such support actually made them less likely to go to the gym less than simply leaving them alone, new research indicates.

Psychopathy increases risk of violence in romantic relationships

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:25 AM PDT

People with higher levels of psychopathic tendencies are more likely to assault their romantic partners. They are also more likely to drink alcohol, a study has found.

New tool detects malicious websites before they cause harm

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:23 AM PDT

Malicious websites promoting scams, distributing malware and collecting phished credentials pervade the web. As quickly as we block or blacklist them, criminals set up new domain names to support their activities. Now a research team has developed a technique to make it more difficult to register new domains for nefarious purposes.

Prognostic role of side where colon cancer occurs

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:23 AM PDT

Does the location of colon cancer – left or right side – matter for survival? A new report reviewed medical literature to examine the prognostic role of a primary colon cancer tumor being located on the left vs. right side.

Study finds lack of benefit of cranberry in reducing urinary tract infections among older women

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:23 AM PDT

Among older women residing in nursing homes, administration of cranberry capsules compared with placebo resulted in no significant difference in presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria (presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine, a sign of urinary tract infection [UTI]), or in the number of episodes of UTIs over l year, according to a study.

Regular dental visits may help prevent pneumonia, study shows

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:22 AM PDT

That twice-yearly trip to the dentist could do more than keep teeth and gums healthy: It may decrease the risk of pneumonia by reducing bacteria in the mouth, suggests research.

Midwater ocean creatures use nanotech camouflage

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:21 AM PDT

Crustaceans that thrive in the vastness of the open ocean have no place to hide from their predators. Consequently, many creatures that live at depths where sunlight fades to darkness have developed transparent bodies to be less visible when spotted against the twilight by upward-looking predators. But they also face predators with bioluminescent searchlights that should cause the clear animals to flash brightly, just like shining a flashlight across a window pane.

Natural compound reduces signs of aging in healthy mice

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:20 AM PDT

Much of human health hinges on how well the body manufactures and uses energy. For reasons that remain unclear, cells' ability to produce energy declines with age, prompting scientists to suspect that the steady loss of efficiency in the body's energy supply chain is a key driver of the aging process. Now, scientists have shown that supplementing healthy mice with a natural compound called NMN can compensate for this loss of energy production, reducing typical signs of aging such as gradual weight gain, loss of insulin sensitivity and declines in physical activity.

Metamaterial device allows chameleon-like behavior in the infrared

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 09:18 AM PDT

An electric current will not only heat a hybrid metamaterial, but will also trigger it to change state and fade into the background like a chameleon in what may be the proof-of-concept of the first controllable metamaterial device, or metadevice, according to a team of engineers.

A death star's ghostly glow

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 08:58 AM PDT

The eerie glow of a dead star, which exploded long ago as a supernova, reveals itself in this Hubble Space Telescope image of the Crab Nebula. But, the ghoulish-looking object still has a pulse. Buried at its center is the star's tell-tale heart, which beats with rhythmic precision. The green hue has been added to give the image a Halloween theme.

New Horizons returns last bits of 2015 flyby data to Earth

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 08:57 AM PDT

NASA's New Horizons mission reached a major milestone this week when the last bits of science data from the Pluto flyby -- stored on the spacecraft's digital recorders since July 2015 -- arrived safely on Earth.

Global wildlife populations: 58 percent decline, driven by food and energy demand

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 08:33 AM PDT

Global populations of vertebrates -- mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish -- have declined by 58 percent between 1970 and 2012, states a new report. Animals living in the world's lakes, rivers, and freshwater systems have experienced the most dramatic population declines, at 81 percent. Because of human activity, the report states that without immediate intervention global wildlife populations could drop two-thirds by 2020.

Mutant plants reveal temperature sensor

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:48 AM PDT

In a serendipitous moment, scientists studying light sensing molecules in plants have discovered that they are also temperature sensors. The discovery may eventually allow them to design crop varieties that are better able to cope with a warming world.

New approach tests the strength of immunity

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:48 AM PDT

A new method to determine how effectively immune cells kill their targets could help personalize immune therapies, report scientists.

Death vs. another hospital stay: Study suggests Medicare should weigh them equally when paying hospitals

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:48 AM PDT

Medicare should focus more on how well hospitals do at actually keeping patients alive during the first 30 days after a hospitalization, in addition to how well they do at keeping patients from being readmitted, a new analysis suggests.

Controlling the properties of matter in two-dimensional crystals

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:46 AM PDT

The discovery of chains of atoms in a two-dimensional crystal could help researchers control the properties of matter.

Is more, better? Finding the balance between nutritional supplements and eye health

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:46 AM PDT

In the past decade, ophthalmologists have been prescribing nutritional supplements to be taken daily to prevent or slow vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Now, using nutritional supplements for eye health has become more common. But does increasing the recommended dose increase your protection? A case report reveals what can happen when a patient takes more of a supplement than their body needs.

Neanderthals on cold steppes also ate plants

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:41 AM PDT

Neanderthals in cold regions probably ate a lot more vegetable food than was previously thought, according to new research on ancient Neanderthal dental plaque.

Prescription medication tragedies could be prevented by simple pictures

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:41 AM PDT

New research reveals pictograms that will help seniors understand medication instructions, say investigators.

Asthma study provides 'paradigm shift' in understanding of life-threatening condition

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:39 AM PDT

New research paves way for developing new treatments for asthma. Researchers have described their discovery as a 'paradigm shift' in understanding the life-threatening condition.

Scientists illuminate key molecular player in both morphine addiction and rare disease

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:36 AM PDT

In a remarkable "two for one" discovery, scientists have illuminated a key molecular player in the addictive effects of morphine in animal models.

'Neighbour maps' reveal the genome's 3D shape

Posted: 27 Oct 2016 06:35 AM PDT

A three-dimensional computer model of the human genome has been created by researchers. The shape of DNA (as well as its sequence) significantly affects biological processes and is therefore crucial for understanding its function. This new study has provided a first three-dimensional, approximate but realistic, identikit of the human genome. Thanks to the characteristics of the new method, the structural reconstruction based on both experimental information and statistical methods will be refined as new experimental data become available.

Scientists get the upperhand in biological pathway that leads to heart formation

Posted: 26 Oct 2016 02:04 PM PDT

A pathway essential to heart formation has now been discovered by scientists. In addition, in the process, they have unveiled a mechanism that may explain how some previously puzzling segments of the genome work.

School environment key to retaining teachers, promoting student achievement

Posted: 26 Oct 2016 02:03 PM PDT

New research identifies four organizational and administrative factors that can decrease teacher turnover and lift student test scores in math.

Integrated neighborhoods more common across the US, study finds

Posted: 26 Oct 2016 02:01 PM PDT

New research tracking population shifts over 30 years shows that increasing neighborhood-level diversity is a near-universal trend, outlines a new report.

Money can buy happiness but it's costly to bank on that without measuring debt

Posted: 26 Oct 2016 02:00 PM PDT

Yes, money can lead to happiness, but how much debt one has should also be considered in the money-happiness equation, according to a new a study.

Threatened by diversity?

Posted: 26 Oct 2016 12:10 PM PDT

In this election year of unprecedented acrimony, one of the most polarizing issues of all is rooted in what's typically considered a national strength: diversity. But as it turns out, not all Americans value the country's multicultural ethos, according to a psychologist's study.

New evidence that politics, not economics, drives inequality

Posted: 26 Oct 2016 12:09 PM PDT

One of the biggest surprises about rising income inequality in the United States may be that economic factors aren't the biggest cause, a new study suggests.
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