Minggu, 23 November 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

How the hummingbird achieves its aerobatic feats

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 04:21 PM PST

Although hummingbirds are much larger and stir up the air more violently as they move, the way that they fly is more closely related to flying insects than it is to other birds. Now, the most detailed, three-dimensional aerodynamic simulation of hummingbird flight conducted to date has definitively demonstrated that the hummingbird achieves its nimble aerobatic abilities through a unique set of aerodynamic forces that are more closely aligned to those found in flying insects than to other birds.
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Sabtu, 22 November 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Anti-HIV medicines can cause damage to fetal hearts, research shows

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 11:12 AM PST

New research raises concern about potential long-term harmful impact of 'antiretroviral therapy' on in-utero infants whose mothers are HIV-positive, but who are not infected with HIV themselves. The study shows that while the HIV medications have been successful in helping to prevent the transmission of the virus from mother to infant, they are associated with persistently impaired development of heart muscle and reduced heart performance in non-HIV-infected children whose mothers received the medicines years earlier.

In landmark study of cell therapy for heart attack, more cells make a difference

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 11:12 AM PST

Physicians from 60 sites treated 161 heart attack patients with their own bone marrow cells, selected for their healing potential and then reinjected into the heart, in an effort to improve the heart's recovery. Their conclusion? Patients who receive more cells get significant benefits.

Digoxin associated with higher risk of death, hospitalization, study shows

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 11:12 AM PST

Digoxin, a drug commonly used to treat heart conditions, was associated with a 71 percent higher risk of death and a 63 percent higher risk of hospitalization among adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation and no evidence of heart failure, according to a study.

'Mind the gap' between atomically thin materials

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 11:11 AM PST

For the first time, researchers have grown a single atomic layer of tungsten diselenide on a one- atom-thick substrate of graphene with pristine interfaces between the two layers using an industrially scalable technique.

Next-door leopards: First GPS-collar study reveals how leopards live with people

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 09:12 AM PST

In the first-ever GPS-based study of leopards in India, biologists have delved into the secret lives of these big cats, and recorded their strategies to thrive in human-dominated areas.

Fluorescent nanoprobe could become a universal, noninvasive method to identify and monitor tumors

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 09:11 AM PST

Researchers have developed a hybrid metal-polymer nanoparticle that lights up in the acidic environment surrounding tumor cells. Nonspecific probes that can identify any kind of tumor are extremely useful for monitoring the location and spread of cancer and the effects of treatment, as well as aiding initial diagnosis.

Marker polyps do not cause cancer, experts say

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 08:18 AM PST

Although serrated polyps usually are associated with colorectal cancer, it turns out that such polyps are themselves not dangerous, according to a study.

Streamlining thin film processing for electrodes, display screens

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 08:18 AM PST

Energy storage devices and computer screens may seem worlds apart, but they're not. When an electrical engineering professor teamed up with and computer scientists to make a less expensive supercapacitor for storing renewable energy, they developed a new plasma technology that will streamline the production of display screens.

Nail stem cells prove more versatile than press ons

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:29 AM PST

There are plenty of body parts that don't grow back when you lose them. Nails are an exception, and a new study reveals some of the reasons why. A team of researchers has identified a new population of nail stem cells, which have the ability to either self-renew or undergo specialization or differentiation into multiple tissues.

Natural resistance gene against spruce budworm found

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:29 AM PST

A natural resistance gene against spruce budworm in the white spruce has been discovered. The breakthrough paves the way to identifying and selecting naturally resistant trees to replant forests devastated by the destructive pest.

Polyethylene mulch, glazing create optimal conditions for soil solarization

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:29 AM PST

Researchers raised soil temperatures in high tunnels in southern Arizona to determine the efficacy of soil solarization using clear mulch on the soil surface and with tunnel glazing or with no glazing. Outcomes showed that producers using high tunnels in the region can complete solarization in less than a week during summer when the soil is fallow using glazing on the high tunnel and polyethylene mulch on the soil surface.

Vermicompost leachate improves tomato seedling growth

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:28 AM PST

A study assessed growth performance of tomato seedlings treated with vermicompost-leachate (VCL), an organic liquid produced from earthworm-digested material. Seedlings were subjected to various temperature and watering regimes. Results showed that VCL can be a suitable soil amendment product to improve overall soil fertility and growth of tomato plants, even under temperature and water stress conditions.

Trouble with your boss? Own it

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:28 AM PST

Don't get along with your boss? Your job performance may actually improve if the two of you can come to grips with the poor relationship. "Seeing eye-to-eye about the employee-supervisor relationship is equally, if not more important than the actual quality of the relationship," said the lead investigator on the study.

When shareholders exacerbate their own banks' crisis

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:28 AM PST

Banks are increasingly issuing 'CoCo' bonds to boost the levels of equity they hold. In a crisis situation, bondholders are forced to convert these bonds into a bank's equity. To date, such bonds have been regarded only as a means of averting a crisis. A study by German economists now shows that if such bonds are badly constructed, they worsen a crisis instead of stabilizing the banking system.

Impact of power prosthetic failures on amputees studied

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:25 AM PST

Powered lower limb prosthetics hold promise for improving the mobility of amputees, but errors in the technology may also cause some users to stumble or fall. New research examines what happens when these technologies fail, with the goal of developing more robust powered prostheses.

New model of follow up for breast cancer patients

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:25 AM PST

Public health researchers from Australia have evaluated international breast cancer guidelines, finding that there is potential to improve surveillance of breast cancer survivors from both a patient and health system perspective.

Life's extremists may be an untapped source of antibacterial drugs

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 07:25 AM PST

Life's extremists, a family of microbes called Archaea, may be an untapped source of new antibacterial drugs. That conclusion arises from the discovery of the first antibacterial gene in this ancient lineage.

Cohesin: Cherry-shaped molecule safeguards cell-division

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 05:59 AM PST

A cohesin molecule ensures the proper distribution of DNA during cell division. Scientists can now demonstrate the concept of its carabiner-like function by visualizing for the first time the open form of the complex.

Brain injuries in mice treated using bone marrow stem cells, antioxidants

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 05:29 AM PST

For the first time, researchers have transplanted bone marrow stem cells into damaged brain tissue while applying lipoic acid (a potent antioxidant), with the aim of improving neuroregeneration in the tissue. This new way of repairing brain damage, which combines cellular treatment with drug therapy, has shown positive results, especially in forming blood vessels (a process called angiogenesis) in damaged areas of the brains of adult laboratory mice.

Erosion may trigger earthquakes

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 05:29 AM PST

Researchers have shown that surface processes, i.e. erosion and sedimentation, may trigger shallow earthquakes (less than five kilometers deep) and favor the rupture of large deep earthquakes up to the surface. Although plate tectonics was generally thought to be the only persistent mechanism able to influence fault activity, it appears that surface processes also increase stresses on active faults, such as those in Taiwan, one of the world's most seismic regions.

Novel robotic walker helps patients regain natural gait and increases productivity of physiotherapists

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 05:29 AM PST

Survivors of stroke or other neurological conditions such as spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injuries and Parkinson's disease often struggle with mobility. To regain their motor functions, these patients are required to undergo physical therapy sessions. A team of researchers has invented a novel robotic walker that helps patients carry out therapy sessions to regain their leg movements and natural gait. The system also increases productivity of physiotherapists and improves the quality of rehabilitation sessions.

Teasing out glitches in immune system's self-recognition

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 05:27 AM PST

In order to distinguish self from other, the immune system processes proteins from inside and outside the body in different ways. A new study revises understanding of how the process works and sheds light on autoimmune disease.

Novel regulatory mechanism for cell division found

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 05:27 AM PST

A protein kinase or enzyme known as PKM2 has proven to control cell division, potentially providing a molecular basis for tumor diagnosis and treatment, researchers report. Understanding how cytokinesis goes awry is important since abnormal cell division impacts tumor cell growth and spread, they add.

Key protein decrypted: Scientists develop 3D model of regulator protein bax

Posted: 21 Nov 2014 12:32 AM PST

A new 3D model of the protein Bax, a key regulator of cell death, has been developed and released by researchers. When active, Bax forms pores in the membranes of mitochondria, causing the release of proteins from the intermembrane space into the cytoplasm. This in turn triggers a series of operations ending in cell death, which are often impaired in cancer cells. Using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy, the research group has now shown that active Bax is present on the membrane in the form of dimeric assemblies whose clamp-like structures have a central role in the pore formation process.

Worldwide action needed to address hidden crisis of violence against women and girls

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 05:46 PM PST

Current efforts to prevent violence against women and girls are inadequate, according to a new Series published in The Lancet. Estimates suggest that globally, 1 in 3 women has experienced either physical or sexual violence from their partner, and that 7 percent of women will experience sexual assault by a non-partner at some point in their lives.

Tapeworm found living inside a patient's brain: Worm removed and sequenced

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 05:45 PM PST

A genome of a rare species of tapeworm found living inside a patient's brain has been sequenced for the first time. The study provides insights into potential drug targets within the genome for future treatments.

How mutant gene can cause deafness

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 05:45 PM PST

Scientists have discovered how one gene is essential to hearing, uncovering a cause of deafness and suggesting new avenues for therapies. "This raises hopes that we could, in principle, use gene-therapy approaches to restore function in hair cells and thus develop new treatment options for hearing loss," said the senior author of the new study.

First inhibitor for enzyme linked to cancers created

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:36 PM PST

Recent studies showing acid ceramidase (AC) to be upregulated in melanoma, lung and prostate cancers have made the enzyme a desired target for novel synthetic inhibitor compounds. Now scientists describe the very first class of AC inhibitors that may aid in the efficacy of chemotherapies.

Time-lapse photos and synched weather data unlock Antarctic secrets

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:36 PM PST

Researchers are using time-lapse photography, linked to weather data, to study climate and geological change in the Antarctic Dry Valleys.

Global report card: Are children better off than they were 25 years ago?

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:36 PM PST

A comprehensive analysis of children's rights in 190 countries around the world has now been released. Today, the Convention on the Rights of the Child remains the only formal global effort to improve children's rights and the most widely ratified human rights treaty in history. Only three U.N. member nations have not ratified the treaty: Somalia, South Sudan and the United States.

When vaccines are imperfect: What math can tell us about their effects on disease propagation

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:36 PM PST

The control of certain childhood diseases is difficult, despite high vaccination coverage in many countries. One of the possible reasons for this is 'imperfect vaccines,' that is, vaccines that fail either due to 'leakiness,' lack of effectiveness on certain individuals in a population, or shorter duration of potency. In a new article, authors use a mathematical model to determine the consequences of vaccine failure and resulting disease dynamics.

Pain, magnet displacement in MRI in patients with cochlear implants

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:36 PM PST

Pain, discomfort and magnet displacement were documented in a small medical records review study of patients with cochlear implants who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), according to a new report.

Nuclear reactor fuel behavior during a severe event

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:34 PM PST

A new discovery about the atomic structure of uranium dioxide will help scientists select the best computational model to simulate severe nuclear reactor accidents.

Deep-Earth carbon offers clues on origin of life: New organic carbon species linked to formation of diamonds -- and life itself

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:33 PM PST

Scientists reveal details about carbon deep beneath Earth's surface and suggest ways it might have influenced the history of life on the planet.

Longer work hours for moms mean less sleep, higher BMIs for preschoolers

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 12:39 PM PST

A link between moms' employment and overweight/obesity in preschoolers has been found by researchers. The study investigated links between mothers' employment status and their children's weight over time, exploring the impact of potential mediators, such as children's sleep and dietary habits, the amount of time they spent watching TV and family mealtime routines.

Improved nanomaterials: Understanding surface structure of quantum dots will aid design of new solar devices

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 12:39 PM PST

A potential path to identify imperfections and improve the quality of nanomaterials for use in next-generation solar cells has just emerged.

Evolutionary principles used to model cancer mutations, discover potential therapeutic targets

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 12:38 PM PST

Researchers are taking a unique approach to understanding and investigating cancer by utilizing evolutionary principles and computational modeling to examine the role of specific genetic mutations in the Darwinian struggle among tumor and normal cells during cancer growth.

HIV/AIDS drugs could be repurposed to treat AMD, researchers suggest

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:17 AM PST

Drugs that have been used for the past 30 years to treat HIV/AIDS, could be repurposed to treat the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new study suggests. AMD is a progressive condition that is untreatable in up to 90 percent of patients and is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The two forms of AMD, wet and dry, are classified based on the presence or absence of blood vessels that have invaded the retina.

Dizzying heights: Prehistoric farming on the 'roof of the world'

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:17 AM PST

Archaeological findings pose questions about genetic resistance in humans to altitude sickness and genetic response in crop plants to flowering times and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. Archaeological discoveries from the 'roof of the world' on the Tibetan Plateau indicate that from 3,600 years ago, crop growing and the raising of livestock was taking place year-round at hitherto unprecedented altitudes.

China's new 'Great Wall' not so great, experts say

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:17 AM PST

China's second great wall, a vast seawall covering more than half of the country's mainland coastline, is a foundation for financial gain -- and also a dyke holding a swelling rush of ecological woes, experts report in a new article.

Genetic connivances of digits and genitals: Formation of these embryonic structures involves action of very similar group of genes

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:17 AM PST

During the development of mammals, the growth and organization of digits are orchestrated by Hox genes, which are activated very early in precise regions of the embryo. These 'architect genes' are themselves regulated by a large piece of adjacent DNA. A new study reveals that this same DNA regulatory sequence also controls the architect genes during the development of the external genitals.

Breakthrough in managing yellow fever disease

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:16 AM PST

Found in South America and sub-Saharan Africa, each year yellow fever results in 200,000 new cases and kills 30,000 people. About 900 million people are at risk of contracting the disease. Now a research team has determined that the yellow fever virus, a hemorrhagic fever virus, replicates primarily in the liver; other organ failures that often follow in people with the disease are due to secondary effects.

Epidemic spreading and neurodegenerative progression

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:16 AM PST

Researchers have used a model inspired by patterns of epidemic disease spreading to map how misfolded proteins propagate within the brain.

An Ebola virus protein can cause massive inflammation and leaky blood vessels

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:16 AM PST

Ebola GP protein covers the virus' surface and is shed from infected cells during infection. Shed GP can trigger massive dysregulation of the immune response and affect the permeability of blood vessels.

Staying ahead of the game: Pre-empting flu evolution may make for better vaccines

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:16 AM PST

An international team of researchers has shown that it may be possible to improve the effectiveness of the seasonal flu vaccine by 'pre-empting' the evolution of the influenza virus.

Imagination, reality flow in opposite directions in the brain

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:14 AM PST

As real as that daydream may seem, its path through your brain runs opposite reality. Aiming to discern discrete neural circuits, researchers have tracked electrical activity in the brains of people who alternately imagined scenes or watched videos.

Jogging keeps you young: Seniors who run regularly can walk as efficiently as 20-somethings

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:14 AM PST

A new study is shedding light on an unexpected benefit of jogging in older adults. The study looked at adults over the age of 65 -- some of whom walk for exercise and some who run for exercise. The researchers found that those who run at least 30 minutes, three times a week were less likely to experience age-related physical decline in walking efficiency than those who simply walked.

Exercise regimens offer little benefit for one in five people with type 2 diabetes

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 10:31 AM PST

As many as one in five people with Type 2 diabetes do not see any improvement in blood sugar management when they engage in a supervised exercise regimen, according to a new scientific review.

Don't get hacked! Research shows how much we ignore online warnings

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 09:32 AM PST

New research finds that people say they care about online security but behave like they don't -- such as ignoring security warnings. To better understand how people deal with security messages, researchers simulated hacking into study subjects laptops. The responses were telling.
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