Sabtu, 02 Mei 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Seafloor sensors record possible eruption of underwater volcano

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:15 PM PDT

If a volcano erupts at the bottom of the sea, does anybody see it? If that volcano is Axial Seamount, about 300 miles offshore and 1 mile deep, the answer is now: yes.

Ocean fronts improve climate and fishery production, study finds

Posted: 01 May 2015 03:21 PM PDT

Ocean fronts -- separate regions of warm and cool water as well as salt and fresh water -- act to increase production in the ocean, research has found. This research showed how fronts can be incorporated into current climate and fisheries models to account for small-scale interactions in fishery production and cycling of elements such as carbon and nitrogen in the ocean.

Comprehensive look at brain cancer treatments

Posted: 01 May 2015 03:21 PM PDT

A comprehensive genetic review of treatment strategies for glioblastoma brain tumors covers how these highly invasive and almost-always-deadly brain cancers may be treated, reviews the continuing challenges faced by researchers and clinicians, and presents the hope for better treatments by harnessing the power of the human genome.

Lousy sockeye are lousy competitors

Posted: 01 May 2015 03:21 PM PDT

A key discovery has been made regarding Fraser River sockeye's vulnerability to sea lice. Their recently published research indicates that juvenile Fraser River sockeye salmon that are highly infected with sea lice are 20 percent less successful at consuming food than their lightly infected counterparts.

Good things in store for retailers

Posted: 01 May 2015 03:21 PM PDT

Adding brick-and-mortar stores to online and catalog retailing increases sales overall, research shows. Online and catalog retailers pondering whether to add physical stores to their customers' buying options can look to recent research for valuable insights on the interplay among the various channels.

Lava Lake Loki on Jupiter's moon Io, up close

Posted: 01 May 2015 01:21 PM PDT

Io, the innermost of the four moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610 and only slightly bigger than our own moon, is the most geologically active body in our solar system. Hundreds of volcanic areas dot its surface, which is mostly covered with sulfur and sulfur dioxide. The largest of these volcanic features, named Loki after the Norse god often associated with fire and chaos, is a volcanic depression called patera in which the denser lava crust solidifying on top of a lava lake episodically sinks in the lake, yielding a raise in the thermal emission that has been regularly observed from Earth. Loki, only 124 miles in diameter and at least 373 million miles from Earth, was, up until recently, too small to be looked at in detail from any ground-based optical/infrared telescope.

School reform in post-Katrina New Orleans harmful to black community, scholars say

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:16 PM PDT

By most media accounts, education reform in post-Katrina New Orleans is a success. Test scores and graduation rates are up, and students once trapped in failing schools have their choice of charter schools throughout the city. But that's only what education reform looks like from the perspective of New Orleans' white minority -- the policymakers, school administrators and venture philanthropists orchestrating and profiting from these changes, say three education scholars.

Housing market cycles have become longer

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:16 PM PDT

A statistical analysis of data from 20 industrial countries covering the period 1970 to 2012 suggests housing market pricing cycles -- normal, boom and bust phases -- have become longer over the last four decades.

Chemistry, topography and mechanics probed with one instrument

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:16 PM PDT

Scientists have combined atomic force microscopy and mass spectrometry into one instrument that can probe a polymer sample in three dimensions and overlay information about the topography of its surface, the atomic-scale mechanical behavior of the bulk sample, and subsurface chemistry.

Flowing against the stream: Inanimate beads behave in lifelike ways

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:16 PM PDT

Synthetic microscopic beads sense changes in their environment and self-propel to migrate upstream, a step toward the realization of biomimetic microsystems with the ability to sense and respond to environmental changes.

Long-term galactic cosmic ray exposure leads to dementia-like cognitive impairments

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:16 PM PDT

What happens to an astronaut's brain during a mission to Mars? Nothing good. It's besieged by destructive particles that can forever impair cognition, according to a radiation oncology study. Exposure to highly energetic charged particles -- much like those found in the galactic cosmic rays that bombard astronauts during extended spaceflights -- cause significant damage to the central nervous system, resulting in cognitive impairments.

Global decline of large herbivores may lead to an 'empty landscape'

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:16 PM PDT

The decline of the world's large herbivores, especially in Africa and parts of Asia, is raising the specter of an 'empty landscape' in some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. Many populations of animals such as rhinoceroses, zebras, camels, elephants and tapirs are diminishing or threatened with extinction in grasslands, savannahs, deserts and forests.

Frailty among older heart patients helps predict severe outcomes

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:15 PM PDT

Frailty among older people with cardiovascular disease appears to be more predictive than age for gauging their risk of heart attack, stroke and death, according to an international study. The researchers noted that frailty is easily diagnosed and should be used in addition to the current scoring system that stratifies patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Patients with gastrointestinal tumors at higher risk of other cancers

Posted: 01 May 2015 12:15 PM PDT

The first population-based study that characterizes the association and temporal relationship between gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and other cancers has been conducted by researchers. The results indicate that one in 5.8 patients with GIST will develop additional malignancies before and after their diagnosis.

US clinics avoiding government oversight of 'stem cell' treatments

Posted: 01 May 2015 11:13 AM PDT

Clinics across the United States are advertising stem cell treatments that attempt to take advantage of what they perceive as exceptions in FDA regulations, according to bioethicist.

Identifying speech, hearing problems early may prevent future losses

Posted: 01 May 2015 11:13 AM PDT

Experts share tips and tools that identify and prevent speech, voice, and hearing impairments. Such impairments affect 43 million Americans, they say, noting how important it is to diagnose these early.

Coal-tar-sealant runoff causes toxicity and DNA damage

Posted: 01 May 2015 10:17 AM PDT

Runoff from pavement with coal-tar-based sealant is toxic to aquatic life, damages DNA, and impairs DNA repair, according to new research. Rainwater runoff collected as long as three months after coal-tar-sealcoat application caused 100% mortality to minnows and water fleas, which are part of the base of the food chain.

Majority of older adults willing to be screened by telephone for dementia

Posted: 01 May 2015 09:55 AM PDT

Nearly two-thirds of older adults were willing to undergo telephone screening for dementia, according to a new study. Willingness to be screened by phone did not differ by sex, age or race.

Species' evolutionary choice: Disperse or adapt?

Posted: 01 May 2015 09:54 AM PDT

Dispersal and adaptation are two evolutionary strategies available to species given an environment. Generalists, like dandelions, send their offspring far and wide. Specialists, like alpine flowers, adapt to the conditions of a particular place. New research models the interplay between these two strategies and shows how even minor changes in an environment can create feedback and trigger dramatic shifts in evolutionary strategy.

The language of invention: Most innovations are rephrasings of past inventions

Posted: 01 May 2015 09:54 AM PDT

Most new patents are combinations of existing ideas and pretty much always have been, even as the stream of fundamentally new core technologies has slowed, according to a new study.

How to reset a diseased cell

Posted: 01 May 2015 09:54 AM PDT

In proof-of-concept experiments, researchers demonstrate the ability to tune medically relevant cell behaviors by manipulating a key hub in cell communication networks. The manipulation of this communication node makes it possible to reprogram large parts of a cell's signaling network instead of targeting only a single receptor or cell signaling pathway.

Nasa’s New Horizons detects surface features, possible polar cap on Pluto

Posted: 01 May 2015 08:43 AM PDT

For the first time, images from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft are revealing bright and dark regions on the surface of faraway Pluto -- the primary target of the New Horizons close flyby in mid-July.

NASA Completes MESSENGER Mission with Expected Impact on Mercury's Surface

Posted: 01 May 2015 08:34 AM PDT

A NASA planetary exploration mission came to a planned, but nonetheless dramatic, end April 30 when it slammed into Mercury's surface at about 8,750 mph and created a new crater on the planet's surface.

Beyond chicken fingers and fries: New evidence in favor of healthier kids' menus

Posted: 01 May 2015 08:16 AM PDT

New research is a first of its kind to look at ordering patterns and sales data following healthy menu changes. Researchers examined outcomes before and after the Silver Diner, a full-service family restaurant chain, made changes to its children's menu in order to make healthier items easier to choose.

New potential melanoma drug target discovered

Posted: 01 May 2015 08:15 AM PDT

A new treatment for melanoma could be on the horizon, thanks to a recent finding. In the study, authors report that they found high levels of an enzyme in melanoma samples that they believe is a potential drug target.

Pulsar with widest orbit ever detected

Posted: 01 May 2015 08:15 AM PDT

A team of highly determined high school students discovered a never-before-seen pulsar. Further observations by astronomers using the GBT revealed that this pulsar has the widest orbit of any around a neutron star and is part of only a handful of double neutron star systems.

Highly efficient CRISPR knock-in in mouse

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:35 AM PDT

The CRISPR/Cas system, which is based on chemically synthesized small RNAs and commercially available Cas9 enzyme, has enabled long gene-cassette knock-in in mice with highest efficiency ever reported, scientists report.

Practical gel simply 'clicks' for biomedical applications

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:35 AM PDT

A novel, truly biocompatible alginate hydrogel has been developed that can be synthesized using 'click chemistry' towards better delivery of drugs, growth factors and living cells for biomedical applications. The gel is formed using chemical crosslinking strategies that allow engineers to entrap cells or molecules inside the gel without damaging them or rendering them inactive, scientists report.

Researchers create DNA repair map of the entire human genome

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:34 AM PDT

When common chemotherapy drugs damage DNA in cancer cells, the cells can't replicate. But the cells do have ways to repair the DNA and the cancer drugs aren't effective to do so. Researchers have developed a way to find where this DNA repair happens. Their goal is to increase the potency of cancer drugs.

Many young ACL surgery patients need second surgery later on

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:34 AM PDT

Orthopedic surgeons are seeing an epidemic of anterior cruciate ligament injuries among young athletes, and a large number of patients who have surgery to reconstruct a torn ACL undergo a second knee operation later on, according to a study.

How your sex life may influence endometriosis

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:00 AM PDT

Researchers are a step closer to understanding the risk factors associated with endometriosis thanks to a new study. A lot remains unknown about what causes, and how to effectively prevent and treat, endometriosis. However, more is now known about what aggravates the condition: seminal fluid (a major component of semen) enhances the survival and growth of endometriosis lesions, researchers have discovered.

Health benefits of coffee: Coffee can act as an antioxidant

Posted: 01 May 2015 07:00 AM PDT

New research has brought us closer to being able to understand the health benefits of coffee.

Comprehensive new study provides foundation for future of digital higher education

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:59 AM PDT

The role that technology plays in higher education has been examined by investigators whose report offers steps that universities of tomorrow can take to support student learning. The study supports previously published research that has found online learning to be equally or more effective than in-person instruction. The new study, however, delves further by examining the evolution of learning in digital spaces, including various approaches to credentialing and assessment beyond the traditional grading scale and diploma.

Mechanisms for continually producing sperm

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:59 AM PDT

Continually producing sperm over a long time is important to procreate the next generation. Researchers have revealed that there are differences in reactivity to retinoic acid in spermatogonial stem cells, and these differences are a key factor to the persistence of sperm production with inexhaustible stem cells.

Guidance improves food safety practices at school, community gardens

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:59 AM PDT

School and community gardens have become increasingly popular in recent years, but the people managing and working in these gardens are often unfamiliar with food safety practices that reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Now researchers have developed guidelines that address how to limit risk in these gardens -- and a pilot study shows that the guidelines make a difference.

Elusive new bird discovered in China

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:59 AM PDT

An international team of scientists has discovered a new bird in China. The new bird, the Sichuan bush warbler, resides in five mountainous provinces in central China. The bird has shunned the limelight by hiding in grassy, scrubby vegetation over the years. However, its distinctive song eventually gave it away, said an integrative biologist on the team.

New exoplanet too big for its star challenges ideas about how planets form

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:59 AM PDT

The discovery of a strange exoplanet orbiting very close to a small cool star 500 light years away is challenging ideas about how planets form.

Twenty exoplanets are now available for naming proposals

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:58 AM PDT

The 20 most popular exoplanets have been made available for naming proposals from registered clubs and non-profit organizations.

GIS study reveals preferred habitat of the Asian elephant

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:58 AM PDT

New results show that Asian elephants preferred secondary forests, presumably because of the abundance of ground grass to eat. The study also found that they spend 75% of their time within 1.5 km of their water source.

Genome library, blood test aim to minimize statin side effects, maximize benefits

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:57 AM PDT

In the midst of the growing and often conflicting data around the benefits of statins, researchers are developing gene-based resources to help improve statin efficacy and cost-effectiveness and to reduce the incidence of adverse effects -- some of which can be fatal.

Teens who mix energy drinks with alcohol more likely to have alcohol use disorder

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:57 AM PDT

Teens aged 15-17 years old who had ever mixed alcohol with energy drinks were four times more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol use disorder, a new study concludes. The team looked at a sample of 3,342 adolescents and young adults aged 15-23 years old recruited across the U.S. They found that 9.7% of adolescents aged 15-17 years old had consumed an energy drink mixed with alcohol. Analyses showed that group to have greatly increased odds of not just binge drinking, but also clinically defined criteria for alcohol use disorder.

Link between inherited genetic variations, outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients discovered

Posted: 01 May 2015 06:57 AM PDT

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. Patients diagnosed with NSCLC have a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of only 16 percent. Researchers hope to improve NSCLC patient survival with the results of a study that found that inherited genetic variations in interleukin genes are associated with improved patient survival and response to therapy.

Lifetime intense physical activity may lower risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Posted: 01 May 2015 05:18 AM PDT

Performing vigorous physical activity over one's lifetime may lower risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Because not much is known about what causes non-Hodgkin lymphoma, identifying risk factors is particularly important for the prevention and control of this cancer, the main researcher noted.

Prolonged statin use may lower risk of lung cancer death

Posted: 01 May 2015 05:18 AM PDT

Lung cancer patients who used statins in the year prior to a lung cancer diagnosis or after a lung cancer diagnosis had a reduction in the risk of death from the disease, researchers report at the conclusion of a recent study.

Heritage destruction in conflict zones provides archaeological opportunities

Posted: 01 May 2015 05:17 AM PDT

An international archaeological team is investigating an historic site devastated by conflict in Lebanon. They have demonstrated it is possible to obtain original and important information from heritage sites that have been devastated by conflict.

Dissolvable surgical clip, 5 mm in size, made of a magnesium alloy

Posted: 01 May 2015 05:17 AM PDT

A safe surgical clip that dissolves, which is absorbed by the body after a certain period of time, has been created by researchers. Clinical use of this clip is expected because it can reduce the rate of postoperative complications and minimize problems associated with diagnostic imaging.

Surgery for terminal cancer patients still common

Posted: 01 May 2015 05:17 AM PDT

The number of surgeries performed on terminally ill cancer patients has not dropped in recent years, despite more attention to the importance of less invasive care for these patients to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Regions at greatest risk for species extinction the least studied

Posted: 30 Apr 2015 07:57 PM PDT

Scientists have crunched the numbers and the results are clear. For every degree that global temperatures rise, more species will become extinct. Overall, the study predicts a nearly 3 percent species extinction rate based on current conditions. If the earth warms another 3°C, the extinction risk rises to 8.5 percent. And if climate change continues on that trajectory, the world would experience a 4.3°C rise in temperature by the year 2100 -- meaning a 16 percent extinction rate.

Online voting a step closer thanks to breakthrough in security technology

Posted: 30 Apr 2015 06:20 PM PDT

A technique to allow people to cast their election vote online -- even if their home computers are suspected of being infected with viruses -- has been developed by researchers. Taking inspiration from the security devices issued by some banks, the system allows people to vote by employing independent hardware devices in conjunction with their PCs.

Substantial benefits for health, environment through realistic changes to UK diets

Posted: 30 Apr 2015 06:20 PM PDT

Making a series of relatively minor and realistic changes to UK diets would not only reduce UK diet-related greenhouse gas emissions by nearly a fifth, but could also extend average life expectancy by eight months, according to new research.

Viruses: You've heard the bad; here's the good

Posted: 30 Apr 2015 02:07 PM PDT

Viruses, like bacteria, can be important beneficial microbes in human health and in agriculture, researchers say, following a review of the current literature on beneficial viruses.
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