Kamis, 30 Juli 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Study of 'senior citizen' marine snails uncovered how nerve cells fail during learning

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:57 PM PDT

A new research study on marine snails uncovered the first cells in the nervous system to fail during aging. The researchers' findings are important to better understanding the underlying mechanisms of age-related memory loss in humans.

Researchers design first artificial ribosome

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:57 PM PDT

Researchers have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins and enzymes within the cell. The engineered ribosome may enable the production of new drugs and next-generation biomaterials and lead to a better understanding of how ribosomes function.

Can we restart the heart?

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:57 PM PDT

What if you could use the proliferative and survival properties of cancer-prone cells to rejuvenate cardiac progenitor cells and get them dividing again, without forming tumors? Researchers are exploring the results of taking an enzyme, Pim, known to be associated with growth and survival of certain types of cancer cells, and causing it to be overexpressed in cardiac progenitor cells in mice.

Prostate cancer is five different diseases, experts say

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:56 PM PDT

Scientists have, for the first time, identified that there are five distinct types of prostate cancer and have found a way to distinguish between them, according to a landmark study.

Targeted therapy shows effectiveness against a subtype of the brain tumor medulloblastoma

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:52 PM PDT

A subset of medulloblastoma tumors briefly stopped growing or disappeared entirely during treatment with vismodegib, researchers report after a trial with both adults and children.

Meet the high-performance single-molecule diode

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Researchers have created the world's highest-performance single-molecule diode. Development of a functional single-molecule diode is a major pursuit of the electronics industry.

Playing 'tag' with pollution lets scientists see who's 'it'

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Using a climate model that can tag sources of soot and track where it lands, researchers have determined which areas around the Tibetan Plateau contribute the most soot -- and where. The model can also suggest the most effective way to reduce soot on the plateau, easing the amount of warming the region undergoes. The study might help policy makers target pollution reduction efforts.

New research opens the door for treatment of relapsing bacterial infections

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:52 PM PDT

A new discovery could put people with relapsing urinary tract infections (UTIs) on the fast track for a new therapeutic regimen. An estimated 150 million UTIs occur each year worldwide, accounting for $6 billion in healthcare costs, according to the American Urological Association.

State immunization laws should eliminate non-medical exemptions, say internists

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:52 PM PDT

Support for eliminating existing exemptions, except for medical reasons, from immunization laws was among the policy recommendations adopted at the summer meeting of the Board of Regents of the American College of Physicians.

Researchers illuminate key role of NOX proteins in liver disease

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:51 PM PDT

A direct connection between two signaling proteins and liver fibrosis, a scarring process underlying chronic liver disease, the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, has been demonstrated by researchers.

Science educators analyze genetics content of Next Generation Science Standards

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:51 PM PDT

The genetics content of the Next Generation Science Standards -- a recent set of performance-based expectations for elementary, middle, and high school students in science classes -- represents, on average, a modest improvement over state standards, but is missing core genetics concepts and is difficult to interpret, according to research.

Evolutionary link between diet, stomach acidity

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 12:51 PM PDT

An analysis of data on stomach acidity and diet in birds and mammals suggests that high levels of stomach acidity developed not to help animals break down food, but to defend animals against food poisoning. The work raises interesting questions about the evolution of stomach acidity in humans, and how modern life may be affecting both our stomach acidity and the microbial communities that live in our guts.

Bioethicists call for end to 'pay-to-play' clinical research

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:24 AM PDT

Charging people to participate in research studies is likely to undermine the fundamental ethical basis of clinical research, according to a new paper written by bioethicists. The paper outlines the arguments for and against the concept of "pay-to-play" research, ultimately concluding that this type of approach compromises the overall integrity of clinical research.

Red grape chemical may help prevent bowel cancer but less is more

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:23 AM PDT

Resveratrol, a chemical found in red grapes, is more effective in smaller doses at preventing bowel cancer in mice than high doses, according to new research. Previous research looked at high doses of purified resveratrol to study its potential to prevent cancer. This is the first study to look at the effects of a lower daily dose -- equivalent to the amount of resveratrol found in one large (approx. 250ml) glass of red wine -- comparing it with a dose 200 times higher.

Early prosocial behavior good predictor of kids' future

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:21 AM PDT

Kindergarteners' social-emotional skills are a significant predictor of their future education, employment and criminal activity, among other outcomes, according to a study.

'Failed stars' host powerful auroral displays

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:21 AM PDT

By observing a brown dwarf 20 light-years away using both radio and optical telescopes, astronomers have found that such so-called failed stars host powerful auroras near their magnetic poles -- additional evidence that brown dwarfs are more like giant planets than small stars.

Tiny grains of rice hold big promise for greenhouse gas reductions, bioenergy

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:21 AM PDT

Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population, but the paddies it's grown in contributes up to 17 percent of global methane emissions -- about 100 million tons a year. Now, with the addition of a single gene, rice can be cultivated to emit virtually no methane, more starch for a richer food source and biomass for energy production.

Dense star clusters shown to be binary black hole factories

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:20 AM PDT

The merger of two black holes is one of the most sought-after observations of modern astronomy. The first observatories capable of directly detecting gravitational waves -- ripples in the fabric of spacetime predicted by Albert Einstein -- will begin observing the universe later this year. When these waves rolling in from space are detected on Earth for the first time, astrophysicists predict astronomers will 'hear,' through these waves, five times more colliding black holes than previously expected.

Vaccination rates in older adults fall short of targets

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:20 AM PDT

A new white paper discusses factors for underutilization of vaccines in older adults and offers recommendations to improve immunization rates.

Shoring up Tor: Researchers mount successful attacks against popular anonymity network -- and show how to prevent them

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:20 AM PDT

With 2.5 million daily users, the Tor network is the world's most popular system for protecting Internet users' anonymity. Researchers have now demonstrated a vulnerability in Tor's design. They show that an adversary could infer a hidden server's location, or the source of the information reaching a given Tor user, by analyzing the traffic patterns of encrypted data passing through a single computer in the all-volunteer Tor network.

Colonoscopies of the future: Adjustable-focus endoscope helps to reduce discomfort

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 11:19 AM PDT

An endoscopic probe that delivers adjustable-focus capabilities in a slimmer package has been developed by researchers. The findings could ultimately facilitate more effective and less painful imaging of internal tissues.

Ongoing recovery efforts take toll on hurricane survivors

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:36 AM PDT

According to a major report on NJ residents living in Superstorm Sandy's path, over 100,000 experienced significant structural damage to their primary homes. Research finds that tens of thousands still live with unfinished repairs, disputed claims and recurrent mold, all associated with increased odds of mental health distress, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression.

Management strategies to reduce catfacing in peaches

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:35 AM PDT

Researchers studied six under-tree vegetation-free strip widths and supplemental irrigation in years 4-8 of a young peach orchard to determine effects on peach tree growth and fruit yield, harvest maturity, and fruit size. Immature fruit samples were collected during thinning in years 4-6 to determine the effect of treatments on the incidence of hemipteran insect damage (catfacing). Results demonstrated that increasing vegetation-free strip width under trees had beneficial results for peach trees and fruit.

Simulated seawater flooding decreases growth of vegetable seedlings

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:35 AM PDT

Scientists evaluated plant growth responses of 10 vegetables to simulated seawater flooding. The plants were flooded with SSW or tap water for 24 hours and grown subsequently for 2 weeks in a greenhouse. Spinach, eggplant, and tomato were the most tolerant, while Chinese cabbage, Chinese greens, and cucumber were the least tolerant species to simulated seawater flooding.

Socially integrated women have lower suicide risk

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:35 AM PDT

Women who were socially well integrated had a lower risk for suicide in a new analysis of data from the Nurses' Health Study, according to an article. Suicide is among the top 10 leading causes of death among middle-age women in the United States.

First smartphone DNA test for chlamydia

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:08 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a smartphone test for chlamydia that can detect the disease with high accuracy, which could reduce the prevalence of this sexually transmitted disease (STD) by making chlamydia screening easier and cheaper.

First lab-on-cartridge device that can perform all common medical tests

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:08 AM PDT

Clinical laboratory tests play a crucial role in making sure patients get appropriate care, yet many small labs and clinics in low resource settings cannot afford the instruments needed to provide these tests. Research on a novel fingerprick test that can perform all common clinical diagnostics could help to expand access to basic medical testing in the developing world.

Atomic view of bacterial enzymes that help human digestion

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:08 AM PDT

A group of researchers has reached deep into the human gut, plucked out a couple enzymes produced by bacteria residing there and determined their biological activities and molecular structures -- details that should shed new light on how we digest many of the foods we eat.

Hospital penalties based on total number of blood clots may be unfairly imposed, study shows

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:08 AM PDT

Researchers say their review of 128 medical case histories suggests that financial penalties imposed on Maryland hospitals based solely on the total number of patients who suffer blood clots in the lung or leg fail to account for clots that occur despite the consistent and proper use of the best preventive therapies.

New research will boost grasp of North American carbon cycle

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:08 AM PDT

For centuries, people have transformed and splintered landscapes and ecosystems in North America. This radical altering of nature makes it tough for scientists to analyze the continent's life-sustaining carbon cycle — the biological, geological and chemical routes the element carbon takes to shift among earth, water and atmosphere.  

Study of birds' sense of smell reveals important clues for behavior, adaptation

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:07 AM PDT

From slight sparrows to preening peacocks to soaring falcons, birds have long been known to possess distinct abilities in their sense of smell, but little has been known about the evolution of olfaction. A large comparative genomic study of the olfactory genes tied to a bird's sense of smell has revealed important differences that correlate with their ecological niches and specific behaviors.

Yarn from slaughterhouse waste

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 08:07 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a yarn from ordinary gelatine that has good qualities similar to those of merino wool fibers. Now they are working on making the yarn even more water resistant.

Climbing a tree can improve cognitive skills, researchers say

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:24 AM PDT

Climbing a tree and balancing on a beam can dramatically improve cognitive skills, according to a study. The findings suggest working memory improvements can be made in just a couple of hours of these types of physical exercises.

Henry V's Agincourt naval fleet much smaller than previously believed

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:24 AM PDT

The naval preparations that allowed Henry V's army to travel from England to France in August, 1415 have been the focus of recent study. Using English exchequer rolls in the National Archives at Kew, London, along with other sources, the research has concluded that Henry had a fleet of ships less than half the size of that which accepted history suggests.

Secrets of stars unlocked through aluminium

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:21 AM PDT

Physicists have revealed a new understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, providing insight into the role massive stars play in the evolution of the Milky Way and the origins of the Solar System.

Monitoring wildlife may shed light on spread of antibiotic resistance in humans

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:21 AM PDT

Researchers tested for resistance to 10 antibiotics among cattle and 18 wildlife species to explore key attributes and behaviors that may increase exposure and allow resistance to move among humans, animals, and ecosystems.

Brain surgery saved Russian general who helped defeat Napoleon: Scientists 'rewrite' history books

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:21 AM PDT

After more than two-years of international investigation, scientists have concluded that Napoleon likely would have conquered Russia in 1812 if not for the life-saving brain surgery performed on Russian general Mikhail Kutuzov by the French surgeon Jean Massot, who operated on Kutuzov after bullets twice passed through his head.

Compliance with guidelines for treating brain injuries doesn't guarantee better outcomes

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:19 AM PDT

Two decades ago, the Brain Trauma Foundation published its first set of guidelines for treating traumatic brain injury. Now, a study has found no evidence that compliance with the guidelines led to lower mortality rates.

World's first white lasers demonstrated

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:19 AM PDT

Semiconductor lasers are capable of emitting over the full visible color spectrum, which is necessary to produce a white laser, researchers have demonstrated. The technological advance puts lasers one step closer to being a mainstream light source and potential replacement or alternative to light emitting diodes (LEDs). Lasers are brighter, more energy efficient, and can potentially provide more accurate and vivid colors for displays like computer screens and televisions.

Detecting small metallic contaminants in food via magnetization

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:19 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a practical metallic-contaminant detector using three high-Tc RF superconducting quantum interference devices for food inspection. While the detection of small metallic contaminants is important for food safety, the sensitivity of currently existing methods is insufficient. The developed method that uses SQUIDs and a digital filter dramatically improves inspection sensitivity; the method could clearly detect a small steel ball with a diameter as small as 0.3 mm.

When cars and wildlife collide: Virtual reality could prevent real-life road accidents

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:19 AM PDT

Using a novel simulation approach, researchers took a closer look at how an interactive system, meant to reduce road accidents involving wild animals, can actually affect driver behavior.

Closing the gap on developing a vaccine for middle ear infections

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:19 AM PDT

Researchers have made a discovery with the potential to impact the treatment of middle ear infections and other illnesses. They found that the bacterial pathogen Haemophilus influenzae, which causes illnesses such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and otitis media, contains a system that randomly changes gene expression causing the bacteria to switch between two different cell types.

Boxfish shell inspires new materials for body armor and flexible electronics

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 07:19 AM PDT

The boxfish's unique armor draws its strength from hexagon-shaped scales and the connections between them, engineers have found. Engineers also describe how the structure of the boxfish could serve as inspiration for body armor, robots and even flexible electronics.

Use of left-ventricular assist devices on heart failure patients: Findings, treatment criteria released

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:31 AM PDT

Researchers are announcing results of a study on the effectiveness of left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD) in treating patients with a form of cardiomyopathy called restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).

Naturally occurring protein fragment found in the brain inhibits key enzyme implicated in Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:31 AM PDT

A natural protein fragment produced in the brain can act as an inhibitor of a key enzyme implicated in the onset of Alzheimer's disease, researchers have discovered for the first time. This is a finding that could lead to the development of new drugs to treat the disease, they say.

Technology developed to reduce cost of purifying natural gas

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:30 AM PDT

A cutting-edge method of reducing the carbon dioxide content of natural gas, a process of major economic and environmental importance in the oil and gas industry, has been developed by scientists.

New database could make airport ground movements quicker, greener and cheaper

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:30 AM PDT

A new system for calculating the quickest and most fuel efficient routes for moving aircraft on the ground could transform the way our airports operate, according to new research. 

Mechanism behind the lack of effectiveness of certain antagonist drugs discovered

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:30 AM PDT

The formation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which allows understanding the unexpected behavior of some antagonists that block physiological responses, has been the focus of recent research.

Intensive biofuel planting poses risk to human health

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:30 AM PDT

The race to meet carbon-neutral biofuel targets could put human health and food crop production at risk unless it is carefully planned, according to new research. The researchers found that it would be possible to grow enough biofuel crops in Europe to meet EU biofuel targets but this could only be done relatively safely if the right crops were planted in the right places -- away from highly populated areas.

Key factor for stability of capillaries in brain identified

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:30 AM PDT

The brain needs a lot of oxygen – so every last corner of the brain's tissue is served by a dense network of fine blood vessels. When these capillaries are damaged by high blood pressure or age, doctors call the condition cerebral small vessel disease. They estimate this is the cause of around one in five strokes, and that the condition may also lead to certain forms of dementia.

Study finds brain chemicals that keep wakefulness in check

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

Mice that have a particular brain chemical switched off become hyperactive and sleep for just 65 per cent of their normal time, a new study shows. This discovery could help researchers to develop new drugs that promote better sleep, or control hyperactivity in people with the medical condition mania.

Alcohol laws have a preventive effect on young men

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

Young men are at risk of alcohol consumption. Regulations such as the minimum legal drinking age can protect them. A new Swiss study reveals: The more legal measures for alcohol prevention are enforced in a canton, the less young men drink excessively. However, this is not effective for high-risk consumers such as young men with a tendency towards sensation seeking or antisocial behavior.

High intensity training helps ease arthritis pains

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

Arthritis: it's a disease that sneaks up on you. Fingers and toes slowly but surely become stiff and painful. A nice morning stretch is no longer all it takes to get your body moving. Arthritis is a chronic illness that sinks its claws into your body, and causes inflammation in your joints. It can destroy your joints, which causes weakness and loss of movement. New research suggests that high intensity training can help with the pain that the illness provides.

Social groups and emotions

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

The semantic representation of social groups involves areas of the brain associated with processing emotions.

Overcoming why a new treatment is resisted by lung cancer

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

A promising agent for the treatment of cancer has so far had little effect on the most common lung tumours, but new research has suggested how this resistance might be overcome.

Adolescents with sleep problems more likely to self-harm

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

There is a strong relationship between sleep problems such as insomnia, and self-harm, according to findings in a new Norwegian study. The researchers say that depressive symptoms accounted for some, but not all, of the association to self-harming. However, the latter association remained significant even in the fully adjusted analyses.

Graphene supercurrents go ballistic

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 06:29 AM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated superconducting electric currents in the two-dimensional material graphene that bounce between sheet edges without scattering. This first direct observation of the ballistic mirroring of electron waves in a 2d system with supercurrents could lead to the use of graphene-based Josephson junctions in applications such as advanced digital logic circuits, ultrasensitive magnetometers and voltmeters.

Imbalance of cellular bioenergetics in pancreatic beta-cells links to type 2 diabetes

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 05:59 AM PDT

While impaired activation of mitochondrial energy metabolism in the presence of glucose has been demonstrated in pancreatic beta-cells from patients with type 2 diabetes, the cause of this dysfunction has been unknown. New research shows that in patients with type 2 diabetes, the balance between supply and demand of the mitochondrial membrane potential is altered causing a decrease in the signaling that turns on insulin secretion.

Stressed out plants send animal-like signals

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 05:59 AM PDT

For the first time, research has shown that, despite not having a nervous system, plants use signals normally associated with animals when they encounter stress.

First detection of lithium from an exploding star

Posted: 29 Jul 2015 05:59 AM PDT

The chemical element lithium has been found for the first time in material ejected by a nova. Observations of Nova Centauri 2013 made using telescopes at ESO's La Silla Observatory, and near Santiago in Chile, help to explain the mystery of why many young stars seem to have more of this chemical element than expected.
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