Selasa, 26 Juli 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Selective sensing of harmful molecules with light

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:16 PM PDT

Scientists are developing more highly sensitive devices for the detection of biological and chemical compounds.

NFL: Optimizing Monday nights

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:15 PM PDT

After analyzing more than 20 years of Monday Night Football viewership, researchers have developed an optimization model that shows how its schedules could be improved despite the uncertainty that schedule makers face.

Hot news flash! Menopause, sleepless nights make women's bodies age faster

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:15 PM PDT

Menopause--and the insomnia that often accompanies it --make women age faster, two new studies reveal. The work suggests these factors could increase women's risk for aging-related diseases and earlier death.

Before animals, evolution waited eons to inhale

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:15 PM PDT

Time to smash the beaker when thinking about oxygen concentrations in water, at the time when animal life first evolved. Oceans stacked oxygen here and depleted it there, as a new novel model demonstrates. It may well toss a wrench into the way we have dated the evolution of the earliest animals.

Process could make key biodegradable polymer stronger and longer-lasting

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:12 PM PDT

The creation of a new polymer morphology in a material called PLA could lead to better medical implants and drug-delivery devices.

New gene variants present in three percent of all ALS patients

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:12 PM PDT

Variations in a gene with multiple functions in neurons are present in approximately 3 percent of all cases of ALS in North American and European populations, both sporadic and familial, making it one of the most common genetic causes of the disease, according to a new article.

Embryonic gene Nanog reverses aging in adult stem cells

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:12 PM PDT

In a series of experiments, the embryonic stem cell gene Nanog kicked into action dormant cellular processes that are key to preventing weak bones, clogged arteries and other telltale signs of growing old.

Placenta-on-a-chip

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Researchers have developed the first placenta-on-a-chip that can fully model the transport of nutrients across the placental barrier. The flash-drive-sized device contains two layers of human cells that model the interface between mother and fetus.

Enhancing molecular imaging with light

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

A new technology platform is able to image molecules at the nanoscale with super-resolution.

Among the oldest adults, poor balance may signal higher risk for dementia

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers examined whether four different measures of poor physical performance might be linked to increased dementia risk for people aged 90 and older.

Predicting the risk for developing pneumonia in older adults

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Researchers have developed a 'prediction score' to help healthcare professionals determine which older adults might be most at risk for developing pneumonia.

Bio-engineered molecule shows promise for quick control of bleeding

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Hematology researchers have developed a novel genetically engineered clotting factor that can control bleeding in animal models. If the factor proves effective in humans, it may provide a quick-acting countermeasure for surgery patients and others vulnerable to serious bleeding as a result of new blood-thinning drugs.

New nontoxic process promises larger ultrathin sheets of 2-D nanomaterials

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Scientists has developed a novel way to produce two-dimensional nanosheets by separating bulk materials with nontoxic liquid nitrogen. The environmentally friendly process generates a 20-fold increase in surface area per sheet, which could expand the nanomaterials' commercial applications.

Astronomers discover dizzying spin of the Milky Way galaxy's 'halo'

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Astronomers have discovered for the first time that the hot gas in the halo of the Milky Way galaxy is spinning in the same direction and at comparable speed as the galaxy's disk, which contains our stars, planets, gas, and dust. This new knowledge sheds light on how individual atoms have assembled into stars, planets, and galaxies like our own, and what the future holds for these galaxies.

DNA sequencing uncovers latent risk for developing cystic fibrosis

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

All babies with a known mutation for cystic fibrosis (CF) and second mutation called the 5T allele should receive additional screening in order to better predict the risk of developing CF later in life, new research shows.

'Watching' crystal structure change in real time

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Rresearchers have met the long-standing scientific challenge of watching a material change its crystal structure in real time.

Sub-set of stem cells found to minimize risks when used to treat damaged hearts

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 12:11 PM PDT

Scientists use mathematical modeling to simulate human mesenchymal stem cell delivery to a damaged heart and found that using one sub-set of these stem cells minimizes the risks associated with this therapy. The study represents a development in novel strategies to repair and regenerate heart muscle and could improve stem cell treatments for heart attack patients.

Human 'super predator' more terrifying than bears, wolves and dogs

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

Bears, wolves and other large carnivores are frightening beasts but the fear they inspire in their prey pales in comparison to that caused by the human 'super predator.' A new study demonstrates that smaller carnivores, like European badgers, that may be prey to large carnivores, actually perceive humans as far more frightening.

Spiders spin unique phononic material

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

How spider silk transmits phonons -- quanta of sound -- could inspire novel materials to manipulate sound and heat, according to scientists.

Digging deeper into Mars

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

Scientists continue to unravel the mystery of life on Mars by investigating evidence of water in the planet's soil. Previous observations of soil observed along crater slopes on Mars showed a significant amount of perchlorate salts, which tend to be associated with brines with a moderate pH level. However, researchers have stepped back to look at the bigger picture through data collected from the 2001: Mars Odyssey, and found a different chemical on Mars may be key.

Building a Moebius strip of good vibrations

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

Physicists have created something similar to a Moebius strip of moving energy between two vibrating objects, opening the door to novel forms of control over waves in acoustics, laser optics, and quantum mechanics.

Promising new drug could help treat spinal muscular atrophy

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:53 AM PDT

Approximately one out of every 40 individuals in the United States is a carrier of the gene responsible for spinal muscular atrophy, a neurodegenerative disease that causes muscles to weaken. Researchers have developed a new molecule in April 2014 that was found to be highly effective in animal models. Now, testing of that compound is leading to a better prognosis for mice with the disease and the possibility of potential drugs.

Protein in breast milk reduces infection risk in premature infants

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:37 AM PDT

Full-term babies receive natural protection from their mothers that helps them fight off dangerous infections. However, babies born prematurely lack protective intestinal bacteria and often are unable to be nursed, causing their infection-fighting capabilities to be underdeveloped. Now, researchers have found that a manufactured form of lactoferrin, a naturally occurring protein in breast milk, can help protect premature infants from a type of staph infection.

Ultra-flat circuits will have unique properties

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:37 AM PDT

Theoretical physicists have analyzed the electronic consequences of creating circuits in two dimensions by simulating the juxtaposition of different atom-thick materials like graphene and hexagonal boron nitride.

Aging can drive progress, say scientists

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:37 AM PDT

Twenty years from now, the number of retired persons worldwide will have grown by 600 million, almost double the current number. Life expectancy will have increased, bringing new economic challenges. Yet the growing number of seniors can also stimulate important breakthroughs in medicine, biotechnology, nanotechnology, cognitive sciences and robotics, say scientists.

DNA analyses reveal genetic identities of world's first farmers

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:37 AM PDT

Conducting the first large-scale, genome-wide analyses of ancient human remains from the Near East, an international team of scientists has illuminated the genetic identities and population dynamics of the world's first farmers.

Flu vaccine reduces risk of hospital stay for stroke, heart failure for diabetes patients

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 10:37 AM PDT

People with type 2 diabetes who receive the influenza vaccine may be less likely to be admitted to hospital for myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure, according to new research.

Increasing the odds of prostate cancer detection

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:22 AM PDT

A radiologist reports that he uses magnetic resonance technology to diagnose prostate cancer with more than 90 percent success rate.

Study identifies potential new avenue for treating Pompe Disease

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:22 AM PDT

Researchers have identified a potential new avenue for treating Pompe disease, a rare condition caused by the build-up of glycogen, a storage form of sugar, in cardiac and skeletal muscle, the liver and other tissues, due to deficiency of a particular enzyme.

Salad days: Tomatoes that last longer and still taste good

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:21 AM PDT

The precise mechanisms involved in tomato softening have remained a mystery until now. Research has identified a gene that encodes an enzyme which plays a crucial role in controlling softening of the tomato fruit.

New robot overcomes obstacles

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:20 AM PDT

It looks like a bicycle chain, but has just twelve segments about the size of a fist. In each segment there is a motor. This describes pretty much the robot developed by the four bachelor students in Computer Engineering.

Patients with low risk prostate cancer on active surveillance experience good quality of life

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:19 AM PDT

Active surveillance (AS) has become an increasingly important alternative to surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation treatment for men diagnosed with low risk prostate cancer. However, what is the impact of AS on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients selected or opting for this conservative form of disease management? New research found that patients on AS who were tracked for three years experienced similar HRQoL as men without prostate cancer, both clinically and psychologically.

Alzheimer's disease in HIV-positive patient

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:19 AM PDT

The first case of Alzheimer's disease diagnosed in an HIV-positive individual has been documented. The finding in a 71-year-old man triggers a realization about HIV survivors now reaching the age when Alzheimer's risk begins to escalate.

Pain of rejection makes us more likely to commit fraud

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:19 AM PDT

People commit fraud because they are unhappy about being rejected, a new study has found.

Research opens 'black box' of malignant melanoma

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

A new study pinpoints when melanoma cells metastasize in the brain months before they develop into fatal tumors. According to the research, micro-tumor cells hijack astrogliosis, the brain's natural response to damage or injury, to support metastatic growth. This knowledge may lead to the detection of brain cancer in its first stages and permit early intervention.

Self-healing textiles not only repair themselves, but can neutralize chemicals

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Someday, chemically protective suits made of fabric coated in self-healing, thin films may prevent farmers from exposure to organophosphate pesticides, soldiers from chemical or biological attacks in the field and factory workers from accidental releases of toxic materials, according to a team of researchers.

New movie screen allows for glasses-free 3-D

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Researchers have demonstrated a display that lets you watch 3-D films in a movie theater without extra eyewear. Dubbed 'Cinema 3D,' the prototype uses a special array of lenses and mirrors to enable viewers to watch a 3-D movie from any seat in a theater.

Sibling competition helped guide dispersal in pre-industrial populations

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Researchers who examined family genealogies from Finland found that the presence of same-sex elder siblings increased the probability that people would disperse to new lands, whereas having opposite-sex siblings had less influence.

New lithium-oxygen battery greatly improves energy efficiency, longevity

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

A new kind of lithium-oxygen battery, using glass nanoparticles of lithium oxides, could provide more energy, and much better stability and energy efficiency, report scientists.

Patch delivers drug, gene, and light-based therapy to tumor sites

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

A research team delivers drug, gene, and light-based therapy directly to tumor sites, with promising results, reports a new article.

Novel technique to 'taste' DNA

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Scientists have demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to selectively sequence fragments of DNA in real time, greatly reducing the time needed to analyze biological samples.

1.6 million childbearing women could be at risk of Zika virus infection, study suggests

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:18 AM PDT

Research by scientists in the US and UK has estimated that up to 1.65 million childbearing women in Central and South America could become infected by the Zika virus by the end of the first wave of the epidemic.

Using tau imaging as diagnostic marker for Alzheimer disease

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

The accumulation of ?-Amyloid and tau proteins in the brain is hallmark pathology for Alzheimer disease. Recently developed positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, including [18F]-AV-1451, bind to tau in neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. So, could tau imaging become a diagnostic marker for Alzheimer disease and provide insights into the pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative disorder that destroys brain cells?

Racial differences in inpatient procedures after stroke

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

Inpatient procedures are an integral part of routine stroke care. Some procedures have a curative intent to heal the patient, while others are life-sustaining procedures. A new study has found that minority patients were more likely to undergo the four life-sustaining procedures than white patients. However, the odds of undergoing IVT and carotid revascularization - those procedures with curative intent - were lower for minority patients, according to the results.

Are primary stroke centers associated with lower fatality?

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

Does a long travel time to a primary stroke center (PSC) offset the potential benefits of this specialized care? A new study analyzed data for a national group of Medicare beneficiaries and calculated travel time to evaluate the association of seven-day and 30-day death rates with receiving care in a PSC.

Medical students using electronic health records to track former patients

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

Many medical students are using electronic health records (EHRs) to track former patients but the practice, which students report as being educational, raises some ethical questions, according to an article.

Marijuana exposure in kids rose after recreational use legalized in Colorado

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

The legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado was associated with both increased hospital visits and cases at a regional poison center because of unintentional exposure to the drug by children, suggesting effective preventive measures are needed as more states consider legalizing the drug, according to a new article.

Induced labor not associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders, study shows

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

Induction of labor appears not to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in children, a large new study demonstrates. The new finding suggests that concern about autism risk should not factor into clinical decisions about whether or not to induce labor.

Researchers 'solve' key Zika virus protein structure

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

Researchers have revealed the molecular structure of a protein produced by the Zika virus that is thought to be involved in the virus's reproduction and its interaction with a host's immune system.

'Exceptional points' give rise to counterintuitive physical effects

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser -- all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules.

Newly found, 'thrifty' genetic variant influences Samoan obesity

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 09:17 AM PDT

A genetic variant that affects energy metabolism and fat storage partly explains why Samoans have among the world's highest levels of obesity, a new study suggests.

Twitter sentiment offers clues to stock performance, study shows

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 08:15 AM PDT

A strong contemporaneous correlation does exist between the mood of a day's worth of tweets about a particular stock and the performance of that stock, research shows.

It's not just a good suit and strong handshake: New study identifies key factor in getting dream job

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 08:14 AM PDT

A new study examines the influence of technology in job interviews. Overall, technology-mediated interviews resulted in lower ratings for both the company and the candidate. Within that category, video interviews received the most negative rankings, followed by telephone and computer interviews. Face-to-face interviews received more favorable rankings.

Flower bud uniformity beholden to time, space

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

A study of sepals in Arabidopsis plants reveals the mystery of how uniformity in flowers and organs occurs. In the study, the diverse international team used an interdisciplinary approach that combined expertise in biology, computer science, physics and applied mathematics.

Quantitating the complete human proteome

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

Researchers have developed the Human SRMAtlas, a compendium of mass spectrometry assays for any human protein. ISB releases protein assay parameters freely to the scientific community for the ability to assay any human protein without restriction. Through the use of the ISB Human SRMAtlas, biomarker candidates, wellness markers and protein networks can be quickly evaluated to provide quantitative results on disease, wellness and biological processes.

Scientists exploit malaria's Achilles' heel

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

Malaria researchers have found one of the malaria parasite's best weapons against drug treatments turns out to be an Achilles' heel, which could be exploited to cure the deadly disease.

New index reveals likelihood of terrestrial or aquatic lifestyles of extinct mammals

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

Researchers have developed a new index based on rib and body weight measurements that predicts whether a mammal lived on land, in water, or both. When applied to extinct mammalian species, the index showed that some could not have supported their own weight while walking or crawling, and thus must have been restricted to an aquatic life. The index reveals the habitats of extinct species and enables reconstruction of their lifestyles and the anatomical changes that accompanied adoption of an exclusively aquatic lifestyle.

Salmonella protein reduces drug resistance in tumors

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

A surprising result in an experiment on Salmonella bacteria has led to a discovery that may make drug resistant cancer cells more treatable by conventional chemotherapies. Scientists have found that the Salmonella protein SipA naturally reduces a well-known drug-resistant molecule found in many different types of cancer cells.

Hot desert storms increase risk of bacterial meningitis in Africa

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

Exposure to airborne dust and high temperatures are significant risk factors for bacterial meningitis, a new study has found. The Sahel region of West Africa has the highest number of bacterial meningitis cases in the world. Previous studies have suggested that climate factors play a role in outbreaks, but little was known about the specific impact of climate on bacterial meningitis and how it caused disease.

Research shows sharing of cavity-causing bacteria may not be only from mothers to children

Posted: 25 Jul 2016 07:52 AM PDT

New ongoing research is showing more evidence that children may receive oral microbes from other, nonrelative children. It was previously believed that these microbes were passed primarily from mother to child, but in a recent study, researchers found that 72 percent of children harbored at least one strain of the cavity-causing Streptococcus mutans not found in any cohabiting family members.
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