Sabtu, 29 Agustus 2015

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News


Seeing quantum motion; even one day ripples in the fabric of space-time?

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:29 AM PDT

Even large objects obey quantum physics, meaning they are never quite at rest. Researchers have developed a way to detect -- and manipulate -- this underlying quantum motion.

Artificial leaf harnesses sunlight for efficient fuel production

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 11:29 AM PDT

A new solar fuel generation system, or artificial leaf, safely creates fuel from sunlight and water with record-setting efficiency and stability.

CPR: It's not always a lifesaver, but it plays one on TV

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:52 AM PDT

If you think that performing CPR on a person whose heart has stopped is a surefire way to save their life, you may be watching too much TV. The truth is more depressing than fiction, according to a new study. While medical dramas Grey's Anatomy and House show cardiopulmonary resuscitation saving a patient's life nearly 70 percent of the time, the real immediate survival rate is nearly half that -- around 37 percent.

New synthetic tumor environments make cancer research more realistic

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:52 AM PDT

Tumors are notoriously difficult to study in their natural habitat -- body tissues -- but a new synthetic tissue environment may give cancer researchers the next-best look at tumor growth and behavior. Researchers have now developed a new technique to create a cell habitat of hydrogels which can realistically and quickly recreate microenvironments found across biology.

Oysters harbor, transmit human norovirus: Avoid raw ones

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 10:52 AM PDT

Oysters not only transmit human norovirus; they also serve as a major reservoir for these pathogens, according to newresearch.

Fungi tweaked to boost industrial enzymes

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 09:10 AM PDT

Mutants of a common fungus produce endoxylanase enzymes twice as potent as the original strain.

Graphics processors accelerate pattern discovery

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 09:10 AM PDT

Using normal graphics processors, a new program for identifying repeated patterns in complex networks significantly boosts search performance.

Simulations show why platinum nanoparticles become less effective catalysts at small sizes

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 09:10 AM PDT

Scientists have used first-principles computer simulations to explain why small platinum nanoparticles are less effective catalysts than larger ones.

Close to the point of more efficient chips

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 09:10 AM PDT

More efficient chips based on plasmonics are a step closer to reality through better control of the directional excitation of plasmons in a gold grating.

Turning sewage sludge into concrete

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 09:10 AM PDT

Dried sewage sludge could be an alternative cement material for concrete, researchers have found.

Using DNA origami to build nanodevices of the future

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 09:10 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a method, using a double layer of lipids, which facilitates the assembly of DNA origami units, bringing us one-step closer to DNA nanomachines.

Medicinal marijuana: Patients battle stigma and misunderstanding

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 08:30 AM PDT

New research examines the experiences of California residents who have been prescribed medical marijuana and the stigma they experience from public opinion.  The findings indicate that the stigma of using medical marijuana may contribute to the under-treatment of those who might benefit from medical marijuana. 

Philistines introduced sycamore, cumin and opium poppy into Israel during the Iron Age

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

A new study describes the bio-archaeological remains of the Philistine culture in Israel during the Iron Age (12th century to 7th century BCE). The results of this research indicate that the ca. 600 year presence of the Philistine culture had a major and long-term impact on local floral biodiversity.

Staying safe in sandy beaches

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

Beach sand contains all kinds of microorganisms, including those that can harm human health. Yet current guidelines are focused exclusively on monitoring the levels of microbes in the water. Now, an international panel of scientists is recommending monitoring the sand at recreational beaches, to minimize health risks for beachgoers.

DNA 'clews' used to shuttle CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool into cells

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 08:27 AM PDT

Researchers have for the first time created and used a nanoscale vehicle made of DNA to deliver a CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool into cells in both cell culture and an animal model.

Important steps toward developing a blood test to catch pancreatic cancer early

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 07:23 AM PDT

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States and has a 5-year survival rate of only 6 percent, which is the lowest rate of all types of cancer.  This low survival rate is partially attributed to the difficulty in detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage.

New embryo image processing technology could assist in IVF implantation success rates

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 07:23 AM PDT

Biologists and engineers have developed a new non-invasive image processing technique to visualize embryo formation. Researchers were able to see, for the first time, the movement of all of the cells in living mammalian embryos as they develop under the microscope. This breakthrough has important implications for IVF treatments and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. In the future, this approach could help with embryo selection to improve IVF success rates.

Older adults possess important forms of expertise

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 07:22 AM PDT

New research on aging and skill development provides the most complete analysis to date of skill development in a traditional society. The results show that most skills essential to Tsimane survival are acquired prior to first reproduction, and then develop further to meet the increasing demands of offspring.

Mathematician reveals the mechanism for sustaining biological rhythms

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 07:22 AM PDT

Scientists have predicted how biological circuits generate rhythms and control their robustness, utilizing mathematical modeling based on differential equations and stochastic parameter sampling.

Lack of folic acid enrichment in Europe causes mortality among fetuses

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 07:22 AM PDT

A new international study shows that 5,000 fetuses in Europe annually are affected by spina bifida and other severe defects on the central nervous system. Seventy percent of these pregnancies are terminated, while increased mortality and serious diseases affect the children who are born. At least half of the cases can be avoided by adding folic acid to staple foods as is already being done in 70 non-European countries.

The alien within: Fetal cells influence maternal health during pregnancy (and long after)

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 06:13 AM PDT

Dramatic research has shown that during pregnancy, cells of the fetus often migrate through the placenta, taking up residence in many areas of the mother's body, where their influence may benefit or undermine maternal health.

Neurobiology: Light-activated learning

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Scientists have developed a light-sensitive switch that regulates a protein implicated in the neurobiology of synaptic plasticity. The agent promises to shed new light on the phenomenology of learning, memory and neurodegeneration.

A barcode for shredding junk RNA

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

A growing, dividing cell uses most of its energy store to make its "protein factories," the ribosomes. An important player in their "assembly" is the exosome, a molecular shredding machine that breaks down excess ribonucleic acid (RNA). Researchers have discovered how the exosome identifies its target RNA. The team identified a specific detection signal, comparable to a postal code or bar code that targets the exosome to the remote RNA.

Human mobility can be modeled as mixture of different transportation modes

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Computer scientists studied human mobility in urban areas from the point of view that mobility can be described as random walk with many short steps and fewer extremely long steps. Combining GPS data with information on transportation modes they model the average movement patterns of mobile users. Understanding of human mobility is important not just for, e.g., tracking epidemic diseases but also in planning sustainable urban areas with functional data resources.

Turning breath into words: New device unveiled to give paralysis victims a voice

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

A new device which transforms paralysis victims' breath into words – believed to be the first invention of its kind – has been developed.

Tumour suppressor genes curb growth in neighboring cells

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Researchers have unraveled a role for tumor suppressor genes in restricting the growth of neighboring cell populations. The study might have implications for understanding the early events of tumorigenesis and the selection of the tumour-initiating cells.

Future climate models greatly affected by fungi and bacteria

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Researchers have shown that our understanding of how organic material is decomposed by fungi and bacteria is fundamentally wrong. This means that climate models that include microorganisms to estimate future climate change must be reconsidered.

Draw out of the predicted interatomic force

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Liquid Bi shows a peculiar dispersion of the acoustic mode, which is related to the Peierls distortion in the crystalline state. These results will provide valuable inspiration to researchers developing new materials in the nanotechnology field.

New mechanism in adrenal gland tumors

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:14 AM PDT

Scientists have elucidated a mechanism that is responsible for the development of adrenal gland tumors. They discovered that the BMP7 protein plays a key role in this process and that it could be a possible target for future treatments.

Rules of communication in the nucleus: genes and nuclear pores need 'interpreters'

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:13 AM PDT

Nuclear pores in the nuclear membrane do not only control the transport of molecules into and out of the nucleus but also play an important role in gene expression. Researchers have deciphered a mechanism by which nuclear pores use "interpreters" to directly influence gene expression.

Ant communication: Secrets of the antennae

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:13 AM PDT

Scientists have identified chemosensory proteins (CSPs) that play important roles in communications between worker ants. CSPs may represent a starting point for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in the sophisticated system of communication that supports ants' complex societies, and the evolution of these mechanisms.

Brain scans predict response to antipsychotic medications

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:10 AM PDT

Investigators have discovered that brain scans can be used to predict patients' response to antipsychotic drug treatment.

New technique could enable design of hybrid glasses and revolutionize gas storage

Posted: 28 Aug 2015 05:10 AM PDT

A new method of manufacturing glass could lead to the production of 'designer glasses' with applications in advanced photonics, whilst also facilitating industrial scale carbon capture and storage. Researchers report how they have managed to use a relatively new family of sponge-like porous materials to develop new hybrid glasses.

Women with hypertension in pregnancy and their siblings face increased risk of heart disease

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:59 PM PDT

High blood pressure during pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but it's not clear if this increased risk is because these women are more likely to have a family history of heart disease or if elevated blood pressure during pregnancy causes long-term metabolic and vascular abnormalities. A new study is now providing some insights.

Meningitis: Research advances on 'scourge' of transplant wards

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:59 PM PDT

The fungus Cryptococcus causes meningitis, a brain disease that kills about 1 million people each year. It's difficult to treat because fungi are genetically quite similar to humans, so compounds that affect fungi tend to have toxic side effects for patients. Now, researchers have identified 18 proteins that play a role in spore formation and germination. The findings raises the possibility of preventing the disease by blocking the spores' germination.

Chemists solve major piece of cellular mystery

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:56 PM PDT

Biochemists have solved the architecture of the nuclear pore complex's complicated inner ring, a subcomplex that is central to the cellular machine's ability to serve as a barrier and transport facilitator. In the process, they disproved many previously held ideas about how the inner ring works.

Cheaper, better LED technology

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:56 PM PDT

An engineering professor has developed a new highly efficient and low cost light emitting diode that could help spur more widespread adoption of the technology.

Air pollution linked to children's low academic achievement

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:56 PM PDT

A new study on children's health has found that fourth and fifth graders who are exposed to toxic air pollutants at home are more likely to have lower GPAs.

Fishermen discards could increase prevalence of turtle disease in Turks and Caicos

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:56 PM PDT

The team surveyed cases of green turtle fibropapillomatosis disease, which creates unsightly pink tumors on the turtles' flesh. Although benign, they can impede turtles' vision and movement, as well as feeding, swimming and organ function. The virus is not thought to be dangerous to humans. Over two years, around 13 percent of green turtles found in waters had the disease. In contrast, fishermen did not land any diseased turtles during this period, even though they were fishing in areas where diseased animals were prevalent.

15 percent of cigarettes sold in NYC have illegal tax stamps, study finds

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:56 PM PDT

Licensed tobacco retailers throughout New York City are selling a substantial number of cigarette packs carrying either counterfeit or out-of-state tax stamps.

Goth teens could be more vulnerable to depression and self-harm

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 06:56 PM PDT

Young people who identify with the goth subculture might be at increased risk of depression and self-harm, according to new research.

Retinoids may increase effectiveness of targeted therapies against high-risk leukemia

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:46 PM PDT

Scientists have identified how mutations in the IKZF1 gene contribute to a high-risk leukemia subtype and drugs that may enhance the effectiveness of targeted therapy

If you build it they will come: Frogs flourish in humanmade ponds

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:46 PM PDT

A new study shows that frogs have begun to use humanmade ponds to their benefit.

Brazil's national oral health policy: An example for other nations

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:45 PM PDT

Brazil is the only country with more than 200 million inhabitants that has a universal health system, funded by federal, state and municipal budgets. In recent decades, the system has evolved from an exclusionary to a universal model, the unified health system (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]), where everyone is entitled to healthcare and the government is required to provide it. Primary healthcare is the backbone of the new system, in keeping with the guidelines set forth by the Primary Healthcare Reform, recommended by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization.

Scientists identify possible key in virus, cancer research

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

Scientists have uncovered a viral protein in the cell that inhibits the major DNA sensor and thus the body's response to viral infection, suggesting that this cellular pathway could be manipulated to help a person fight infection, cancer or autoimmune diseases.

Humans may be harmed by endocrine disrupting chemicals released during natural gas mining

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

More than 15 million Americans live within one mile of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) operations that combine directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking,' to release natural gas from underground rock. Researchers have reviewed research on health effects associated with UOG operations and concluded these activities have potential for environmental release of a complex mixture of endocrine disrupting chemicals that could potentially harm human development.

In diabetic eye disease, peripheral lesions in the retina point to risks of progression

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

Investigators have now shown that eyes with diabetic retinal lesions predominantly in peripheral areas of the retina that are seen in UWF images but not in traditional retinal photographs show surprisingly higher risks of progressing to advanced stages of vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy.

Way for eagles and wind turbines to coexist

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

Collisions with wind turbines kill about 100 golden eagles a year in some locations, but a new study that maps both potential wind-power sites and nesting patterns of the birds reveals sweet spots, where potential for wind power is greatest with a lower threat to nesting eagles.

Degenerating neurons respond to gene therapy treatment for Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:44 PM PDT

Degenerating neurons in patients with Alzheimer's disease measurably responded to an experimental gene therapy in which nerve growth factor was injected into their brains, report researchers.

Modified bacteria become a multicellular circuit

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:42 PM PDT

Scientists create a biological circuit by programming bacteria to alter gene expression in an entire population. They have created a biological equivalent to a computer circuit that involves multiple organisms to influence a population.

Frogs' irrational choices could reform understanding of animal mating

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:42 PM PDT

In the attempt to choose a mate, it's no surprise that females will select the more 'attractive' of two males, but now a new study reveals that female tungara frogs are susceptible to the 'decoy' effect, where the introduction of a third, inferior mate results in the female choosing the less attractive of the first two options.

Glial cells use lipids to direct neuron organization in the spinal cord

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:42 PM PDT

Scientists have discovered that in addition to proteins, lipids are also necessary for guiding axons. The study shows how a phospholipid released by glial cells -- the cells in the nervous system that support neurons -- controls the positioning of sensory neurons within the spinal cord.

A patient shedding poliovirus for 28 years: Possible challenges for polio eradication

Posted: 27 Aug 2015 12:42 PM PDT

With all but two countries worldwide, Pakistan and Afghanistan, declared polio-free, the eradication of the devastating viral disease in the near future is a real possibility. A new study however reports results from an individual in the UK with an immune disease whose stool samples have contained large amounts of live polio virus for over 20 years. Patients like this one, the authors suggest, could start new polio outbreaks and complicate polio eradication as currently planned.
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