Kamis, 25 Agustus 2016

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Disruptions to sleep patterns lead to an increased risk of suicides

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:11 AM PDT

The link between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviors is made starkly clear in new research.

Arctic gives clues on worst mass extinction of life

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:11 AM PDT

Extreme global warming 252 million years ago caused a severe mass extinction of life on Earth. It took life up to 9 million years to recover. New study finds clues in the Arctic as to why this recovery took so long.

Whales in the desert?

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:09 AM PDT

In Cerro Colorado, located in the Ica Desert of Peru, sedimentary sequences dating back nine million years have been found to host the fossil skeletons of hundreds of marine vertebrates. In 2008, remains of a giant raptorial sperm whale, Livyatan melvillei, were discovered at this site. In September 2014, the same international team of researchers found a partial skeleton of a mysticete whale in a rock boulder.

Ocean acidification threatens cod recruitment in the Atlantic

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:09 AM PDT

Increasing ocean acidification could double the mortality of newly hatched cod larvae. Researchers quantified mortality rates of cod at conditions which the fish may experience towards the end of the century. They integrated results of two experiments in model calculations on stock dynamics. The scenarios showed that the recruitment could decrease to between one quarter and one twelfth of last decades' recruitment -- a strong call for action for fisheries management.

Plumbing the secrets of tissue paper

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:09 AM PDT

Tissue manufacturers are now much closer to producing the perfect paper, thanks to new research.

Molecular signature shows plants are adapting to increasing atmospheric CO2

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:09 AM PDT

Plants are adapting to increasing atmospheric CO2 according to a new study.The research provides insight into the long-term impacts of rising CO2 and the implications for global food security and nature conservation.

Progress in vaccination against vespid venom

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:09 AM PDT

Especially in late summer, apprehension about wasp stings increases among allergy sufferers. So-called hyposensibilization therapy can help, but it is linked to a heavy burden on patients and health insurers. Researchers have now presented a new method which facilitates a personalized procedure.

New small molecule compounds could treat Ebola virus infection

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:09 AM PDT

Scientists have found Ebola's Achilles' heel: a new kind of chemical compound can block the protein Ebola uses to break out of cells and infect new cells. The compounds could potentially be used to treat the disease after infection.

Childhood head injury linked to higher risk of poor adult mental health and life chances

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:08 AM PDT

Childhood brain injuries, including concussions, are associated with an increased risk of subsequent mental illness, poor school attainment and premature death, according to a new study.

Forest and watercourse interplay important for restorations

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:08 AM PDT

Humans utilize forests and watercourses in a way that depletes ecosystem habitats, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Many areas are restored to break the trend, but to succeed you need to consider not only the ecosystem in mind, but also surrounding ecosystems.

A brain circuit to push past nutritional stress

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 08:08 AM PDT

Nutritional stress is a normal part of life; going hungry on a short-term basis generally does not impair important functions. The brain coordinates the response to nutritional stress but how it does this was, until now, not well understood. Researchers have now discovered a brain circuit that allows fruit flies to take a major developmental step in their lives despite nutritional stress.

Discovery could provide new prevention, treatment option for organ transplant rejection

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 06:36 AM PDT

Targeting certain donor cells lowered the risk of organ rejection in mice that underwent kidney and heart transplants. Results of this new study could lead to new ways of preventing or treating organ transplant rejection in humans.

Endangered Cuban solenodon evolved after the extinction of dinosaurs

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 06:36 AM PDT

The Caribbean islands form a natural laboratory for the study of evolution due to their unique biological and geological features. There has been heated discussion since the early 20th century on how species appeared on the islands. The Cuban solenodon is a small, rare, endangered animal, belonging to the mammalian order Eulipotyphla. It is a mole-like nocturnal animal with a long snout that feeds on insects and is found in only a few fragmented locations in Cuba. Its evolutionary origins have been widely contested and have remained relatively elusive because they have been so difficult to capture and examine.

Progress in vaccination against vespid venom

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:46 AM PDT

Especially in late summer, apprehension about wasp stings increases amongst allergy sufferers. So-called hyposensibilization therapy can help, but it is linked to a heavy burden on patients and health insurers. Researchers have now presented a method that facilitates a personalized procedure.

Do the tools to quantify addiction help to define it?

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:46 AM PDT

Understanding what counts as an addiction, and what can be done to address it is the work of researchers across many disciplines. But what tools are used to 'measure' addiction, and are these capable of legitimising an addiction or improving our knowledge of it?

Scientists begin to unravel summer jet stream mystery

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:46 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered the cause of the recent run of miserable wet summers as they begin to unravel the mysteries of the Atlantic jet stream.

Direct and active parent involvement key to healthy living for kids

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:43 AM PDT

Parents who directly and actively engage their children in healthy living behavior -- instead of passively 'supporting' the behavior -- are significantly more likely to see their kids meet guidelines when it comes to physical activity, healthy eating and screen time, new research has found.

First randomized trial shows IVF culture media affect the outcomes of embryos and babies

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:43 AM PDT

Fertility experts are calling on the companies who make the solutions in which embryos are cultured during in vitro fertilization (IVF) to give a clear list of ingredients following publication of a trial that shows that the composition of these laboratory cultures affects the outcomes of the resulting embryos and babies in terms of the number of viable embryos created, the rates of successful implantation in the womb, pregnancy rates and babies' birthweights.

Modelling water uptake in wood opens up new design framework

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:43 AM PDT

Analytical approach could accelerate the development of new preservation treatments delivering environmental benefits and help in the design of bio-inspired smart actuators.

African bird shows signs of evil stepdad behavior

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:43 AM PDT

An African desert-dwelling male bird favors his biological sons and alienates his stepsons, suggests new research. The species is the southern pied babbler, a black and white bird found in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Previous work on the southern pied babbler has shown negative outcomes for birds who live alone for longer periods, including a decreased likelihood of attaining dominance in another group and increased weight loss.

In some genetic cases of microcephaly, stem cells fail to launch

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:43 AM PDT

In a very severe, genetic form of microcephaly, stem cells in the brain fail to divide, according to a new study that may provide important clues to understanding how the Zika virus affects the developing brain.

A new path for killing pathogenic bacteria

Posted: 24 Aug 2016 05:42 AM PDT

Bacteria that cause tuberculosis, leprosy and other diseases, survive by switching between two different types of metabolism. Scientists have now discovered that this switch is controlled by a mechanism that constantly adapts to meet the bacterium's survival needs, like a home's thermostat reacting to changes in temperature.

Seagrass restoration threatened by fungi

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 06:29 PM PDT

Seagrass seed is killed by waterborne fungi that are related to the well-known potato blight, biologists have discovered. These fungi, which have not previously been found in seawater, hinder seed germination and thus prevent the restoration of seagrass.

Evidence of changes to children's brain rhythms following 'brain training'

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 06:29 PM PDT

New research questions the strong claims that have been made about the benefits of 'brain training' -- enhanced mental skills, a boost to education, improved clinical outcomes and sharper everyday functioning. This new study found evidence that 'brain training' changed brain signalling but no indication of other benefits.

Test for damp ground at Mars' seasonal streaks finds none

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 02:55 PM PDT

Seasonal dark streaks on Mars that have become one of the hottest topics in interplanetary research don't hold much water, according to the latest findings from a NASA spacecraft orbiting Mars.

NASA establishes contact with STEREO mission

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 02:24 PM PDT

NASA has reestablished contact with its STEREO-B spacecraft, after communications were lost on Oct. 1, 2014. Over 22 months, the STEREO team has worked to attempt contact with the spacecraft. Most recently, they have attempted a monthly recovery operation using NASA's Deep Space Network, which tracks and communicates with missions throughout space.

Female triathletes at higher risk for pelvic floor disorders

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:57 PM PDT

Female triathletes are at a higher risk for several health issues, including pelvic floor disorders, new research indicates. Researchers conducted an internet survey of 311 self-identified female triathletes. Results showed a significant prevalence of pelvic floor disorders, with urinary incontinences (37.4 percent) and anal incontinence (28.0 percent) being the most common.

BPA can disrupt painted turtles' brain development could be a population health concern

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:56 PM PDT

Often, aquatic environments such as rivers and streams become reservoirs for BPA, affecting turtle habitats. Last year, a team of researchers determined that BPA can disrupt sexual function in painted turtles. Now, the team has shown that BPA also can induce behavioral changes in turtles, reprogramming male turtle brains to show behavior common in females. Researchers worry this could lead to population declines in painted turtles.

Surgery that restores hand and elbow function in quadriplegics is underused

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:56 PM PDT

A surgery for quadriplegics called tendon transfer can significantly improve hand and elbow function, but the procedure is greatly underused, according to a new article.

Scientists unravel genetic ancestry of cultivated strawberry

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:56 PM PDT

Scientists have unlocked a major genetic mystery of one of the ancestors of cultivated strawberry. A genetic analysis, which took four years to complete, aims to improve modern cultivation efforts of strawberry growers.

Mechanism that alters neural excitability offers window into neuropsychiatric disease

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:56 PM PDT

Researchers show, for the first time, that the well-known mechanism of gene expression control -- dynamic changes in DNA methylation -- is also involved in changes to the excitability of neural cells. This suggests that DNA methylation changes that alter excitability may be a mechanism involved in neuropsychiatric disorders, and that the sites of such changes may offer a potential therapeutic target.

Prescriptions more affordable after U.S. policy changes

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:56 PM PDT

Researchers have seen significant increases in the number of Americans who can afford to fill prescriptions following implementation of the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act and the 2010 Affordable Care Act (also called Obamacare).

Standing desks lower BMI, research shows

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 01:55 PM PDT

Standing desks lower the BMI trajectory in elementary-aged children over a two-year span--by an average of 5.24 percentile points, a landmark study has found.

Lacking other meaningful data, university faculty devise their own evaluation systems

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Faculty teaching in the STEM disciplines at large research universities are devising their own systems to collect instructional data from their classrooms and using that data to inform their teaching.

Brain damages caused by Zika virus congenital infection go beyond microcephaly

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 12:32 PM PDT

A recent study published by Brazilian researchers indicates brain malformations induced by Zika virus congenital infection. More than microcephaly, the research indicates other neurological changes such as reduction in brain volume, cortical development abnormalities and ventriculomegaly.

Very low transmission of HIV within couples receiving both ART, PrEP

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Providing HIV medication to both members of a couple may substantially reduce the risk of transmission within that couple, according to a new study.

Shortfalls in laboratory services may limit attainment of worldwide targets for HIV

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Insufficient capacity to perform laboratory tests used in monitoring HIV infection, and underutilization of existing testing capacity, are limiting the ability to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets, suggests a new study.

Traumatic brain injury associated with long-term psychosocial outcomes

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 12:32 PM PDT

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) during youth is associated with elevated risks of impaired adult functioning, according to a longitudinal study. The study demonstrates that children and adolescents experiencing even milder forms of TBI (including concussion) may have reduced longevity and significant psychosocial problems in adulthood.

New study provides important insight into how tumors metastasize

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 11:16 AM PDT

The growth of cancerous tumors is affected by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the body's cells; TGF-beta both suppresses and stimulates tumor development, but it has not been understood how this happens. A new study reveals important details behind this process.

Researchers predict sudden cardiac death risk

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 10:51 AM PDT

For the first time, a team of researchers has developed and validated a prediction model to determine sudden cardiac death risk in adults without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Teachers favor middle-class behaviors by students

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 09:56 AM PDT

Sociologists have found that teachers often inadvertently translate students' class-based behaviors into unequal opportunities in school. Teachers favor middle-class students in various ways, perhaps unconsciously.

Guaranteed-tuition laws inflating college costs, study finds

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 09:53 AM PDT

While guaranteed-tuition laws, such as the one in Illinois, may provide predictability for incoming in-state students for their first four years, these mandates inadvertently trigger substantial tuition and fee increases, making higher education more costly and possibly unaffordable for some students, say authors of a new report.

Music at work increases cooperation, teamwork

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 09:52 AM PDT

Music can have important effects on the cooperative spirits of those exposed to music, researchers report. A new article describes two studies they conducted to test the effect of different types of music on the cooperative behavior of individuals working as a team.

Programmable routers could enable more resilient networks

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 09:52 AM PDT

A new design of programmable routers should enable much more flexible traffic management, without sacrificing speed, say investigators.

Recommended blood pressure targets for diabetes are being challenged

Posted: 23 Aug 2016 09:52 AM PDT

The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare recently raised the recommended target blood pressure for patients with diabetes. This may lead to more patients suffering from stroke or heart attack, according to a new study. The new study is the world's largest on the subject and is based on data from the National Diabetes Register.
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